The PARP inhibitor PJ-34 sensitizes cells to UVA-induced phototoxicity by a PARP independent mechanism

Petra Lakatos, Csaba Hegedűs, Nerea Salazar Ayestarán, Ángeles Juarranz, K. Kövér, Éva Szabó, L. Virag

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

3 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

A combination of a photosensitizer with light of matching wavelength is a common treatment modality in various diseases including psoriasis, atopic dermatitis and tumors. DNA damage and production of reactive oxygen intermediates may impact pathological cellular functions and viability. Here we set out to investigate the role of the nuclear DNA nick sensor enzyme poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 in photochemical treatment (PCT)-induced tumor cell killing. We found that silencing PARP-1 or inhibition of its enzymatic activity with Veliparib had no significant effect on the viability of A431 cells exposed to 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) and UVA (2.5 J/cm2) indicating that PARP-1 is not likely to be a key player in either cell survival or cell death of PCT-exposed cells. Interestingly, however, another commonly used PARP inhibitor PJ-34 proved to be a photosensitizer with potency equal to 8-MOP. Irradiation of PJ-34 with UVA caused changes both in the UV absorption and in the 1H NMR spectra of the compound with the latter suggesting UVA-induced formation of tautomeric forms of the compound. Characterization of the photosensitizing effect revealed that PJ–34 + UVA triggers overproduction of reactive oxygen species, induces DNA damage, activation of caspase 3 and caspase 8 and internucleosomal DNA fragmentation. Cell death in this model could not be prevented by antioxidants (ascorbic acid, trolox, glutathione, gallotannin or cell permeable superoxide dismutase or catalase) but could be suppressed by inhibitors of caspase-3 and −8. In conclusion, PJ-34 is a photosensitizer and PJ–34 + UVA causes DNA damage and caspase-mediated cell death independently of PARP-1 inhibition.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)31-40
Number of pages10
JournalMutation Research - Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis
Volume790
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Aug 1 2016

Keywords

  • Apoptosis
  • Cell death
  • Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1
  • Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation
  • Spheroid
  • Ultraviolet light

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Biology
  • Genetics
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis

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