The Neuropsychiatric Inventory-Clinician rating scale (NPI-C)

Reliability and validity of a revised assessment of neuropsychiatric symptoms in dementia

K. De Medeiros, P. Robert, S. Gauthier, F. Stella, A. Politis, J. Leoutsakos, F. Taragano, J. Kremer, A. Brugnolo, A. P. Porsteinsson, Y. E. Geda, H. Brodaty, G. Gazdag, J. Cummings, C. Lyketsos

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

104 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) affect almost all patients with dementia and are a major focus of study and treatment. Accurate assessment of NPS through valid, sensitive and reliable measures is crucial. Although current NPS measures have many strengths, they also have some limitations (e.g. acquisition of data is limited to informants or caregivers as respondents, limited depth of items specific to moderate dementia). Therefore, we developed a revised version of the NPI, known as the NPI-C. The NPI-C includes expanded domains and items, and a clinician-rating methodology. This study evaluated the reliability and convergent validity of the NPI-C at ten international sites (seven languages). Methods: Face validity for 78 new items was obtained through a Delphi panel. A total of 128 dyads (caregivers/patients) from three severity categories of dementia (mild = 58, moderate = 49, severe = 21) were interviewed separately by two trained raters using two rating methods: the original NPI interview and a clinician-rated method. Rater 1 also administered four additional, established measures: the Apathy Evaluation Scale, the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Index, and the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia. Intraclass correlations were used to determine inter-rater reliability. Pearson correlations between the four relevant NPI-C domains and their corresponding outside measures were used for convergent validity. Results: Inter-rater reliability was strong for most items. Convergent validity was moderate (apathy and agitation) to strong (hallucinations and delusions; agitation and aberrant vocalization; and depression) for clinician ratings in NPI-C domains. Conclusion: Overall, the NPI-C shows promise as a versatile tool which can accurately measure NPS and which uses a uniform scale system to facilitate data comparisons across studies.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)984-994
Number of pages11
JournalInternational Psychogeriatrics
Volume22
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2010

Fingerprint

Symptom Assessment
Reproducibility of Results
Dementia
Equipment and Supplies
Apathy
Caregivers
Depression
Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale
Delusions
Hallucinations
Language
Interviews

Keywords

  • agitation
  • Alzheimer's disease
  • apathy
  • dementia
  • depression
  • neuropsychiatric inventory
  • neuropsychiatric symptoms

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geriatrics and Gerontology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Gerontology
  • Clinical Psychology

Cite this

The Neuropsychiatric Inventory-Clinician rating scale (NPI-C) : Reliability and validity of a revised assessment of neuropsychiatric symptoms in dementia. / De Medeiros, K.; Robert, P.; Gauthier, S.; Stella, F.; Politis, A.; Leoutsakos, J.; Taragano, F.; Kremer, J.; Brugnolo, A.; Porsteinsson, A. P.; Geda, Y. E.; Brodaty, H.; Gazdag, G.; Cummings, J.; Lyketsos, C.

In: International Psychogeriatrics, Vol. 22, No. 6, 09.2010, p. 984-994.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

De Medeiros, K, Robert, P, Gauthier, S, Stella, F, Politis, A, Leoutsakos, J, Taragano, F, Kremer, J, Brugnolo, A, Porsteinsson, AP, Geda, YE, Brodaty, H, Gazdag, G, Cummings, J & Lyketsos, C 2010, 'The Neuropsychiatric Inventory-Clinician rating scale (NPI-C): Reliability and validity of a revised assessment of neuropsychiatric symptoms in dementia', International Psychogeriatrics, vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 984-994. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1041610210000876
De Medeiros, K. ; Robert, P. ; Gauthier, S. ; Stella, F. ; Politis, A. ; Leoutsakos, J. ; Taragano, F. ; Kremer, J. ; Brugnolo, A. ; Porsteinsson, A. P. ; Geda, Y. E. ; Brodaty, H. ; Gazdag, G. ; Cummings, J. ; Lyketsos, C. / The Neuropsychiatric Inventory-Clinician rating scale (NPI-C) : Reliability and validity of a revised assessment of neuropsychiatric symptoms in dementia. In: International Psychogeriatrics. 2010 ; Vol. 22, No. 6. pp. 984-994.
@article{e2e8feca85a14dc8ab71e81c0f7dd78e,
title = "The Neuropsychiatric Inventory-Clinician rating scale (NPI-C): Reliability and validity of a revised assessment of neuropsychiatric symptoms in dementia",
abstract = "Background: Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) affect almost all patients with dementia and are a major focus of study and treatment. Accurate assessment of NPS through valid, sensitive and reliable measures is crucial. Although current NPS measures have many strengths, they also have some limitations (e.g. acquisition of data is limited to informants or caregivers as respondents, limited depth of items specific to moderate dementia). Therefore, we developed a revised version of the NPI, known as the NPI-C. The NPI-C includes expanded domains and items, and a clinician-rating methodology. This study evaluated the reliability and convergent validity of the NPI-C at ten international sites (seven languages). Methods: Face validity for 78 new items was obtained through a Delphi panel. A total of 128 dyads (caregivers/patients) from three severity categories of dementia (mild = 58, moderate = 49, severe = 21) were interviewed separately by two trained raters using two rating methods: the original NPI interview and a clinician-rated method. Rater 1 also administered four additional, established measures: the Apathy Evaluation Scale, the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Index, and the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia. Intraclass correlations were used to determine inter-rater reliability. Pearson correlations between the four relevant NPI-C domains and their corresponding outside measures were used for convergent validity. Results: Inter-rater reliability was strong for most items. Convergent validity was moderate (apathy and agitation) to strong (hallucinations and delusions; agitation and aberrant vocalization; and depression) for clinician ratings in NPI-C domains. Conclusion: Overall, the NPI-C shows promise as a versatile tool which can accurately measure NPS and which uses a uniform scale system to facilitate data comparisons across studies.",
keywords = "agitation, Alzheimer's disease, apathy, dementia, depression, neuropsychiatric inventory, neuropsychiatric symptoms",
author = "{De Medeiros}, K. and P. Robert and S. Gauthier and F. Stella and A. Politis and J. Leoutsakos and F. Taragano and J. Kremer and A. Brugnolo and Porsteinsson, {A. P.} and Geda, {Y. E.} and H. Brodaty and G. Gazdag and J. Cummings and C. Lyketsos",
year = "2010",
month = "9",
doi = "10.1017/S1041610210000876",
language = "English",
volume = "22",
pages = "984--994",
journal = "International Psychogeriatrics",
issn = "1041-6102",
publisher = "Cambridge University Press",
number = "6",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - The Neuropsychiatric Inventory-Clinician rating scale (NPI-C)

T2 - Reliability and validity of a revised assessment of neuropsychiatric symptoms in dementia

AU - De Medeiros, K.

AU - Robert, P.

AU - Gauthier, S.

AU - Stella, F.

AU - Politis, A.

AU - Leoutsakos, J.

AU - Taragano, F.

AU - Kremer, J.

AU - Brugnolo, A.

AU - Porsteinsson, A. P.

AU - Geda, Y. E.

AU - Brodaty, H.

AU - Gazdag, G.

AU - Cummings, J.

AU - Lyketsos, C.

PY - 2010/9

Y1 - 2010/9

N2 - Background: Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) affect almost all patients with dementia and are a major focus of study and treatment. Accurate assessment of NPS through valid, sensitive and reliable measures is crucial. Although current NPS measures have many strengths, they also have some limitations (e.g. acquisition of data is limited to informants or caregivers as respondents, limited depth of items specific to moderate dementia). Therefore, we developed a revised version of the NPI, known as the NPI-C. The NPI-C includes expanded domains and items, and a clinician-rating methodology. This study evaluated the reliability and convergent validity of the NPI-C at ten international sites (seven languages). Methods: Face validity for 78 new items was obtained through a Delphi panel. A total of 128 dyads (caregivers/patients) from three severity categories of dementia (mild = 58, moderate = 49, severe = 21) were interviewed separately by two trained raters using two rating methods: the original NPI interview and a clinician-rated method. Rater 1 also administered four additional, established measures: the Apathy Evaluation Scale, the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Index, and the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia. Intraclass correlations were used to determine inter-rater reliability. Pearson correlations between the four relevant NPI-C domains and their corresponding outside measures were used for convergent validity. Results: Inter-rater reliability was strong for most items. Convergent validity was moderate (apathy and agitation) to strong (hallucinations and delusions; agitation and aberrant vocalization; and depression) for clinician ratings in NPI-C domains. Conclusion: Overall, the NPI-C shows promise as a versatile tool which can accurately measure NPS and which uses a uniform scale system to facilitate data comparisons across studies.

AB - Background: Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) affect almost all patients with dementia and are a major focus of study and treatment. Accurate assessment of NPS through valid, sensitive and reliable measures is crucial. Although current NPS measures have many strengths, they also have some limitations (e.g. acquisition of data is limited to informants or caregivers as respondents, limited depth of items specific to moderate dementia). Therefore, we developed a revised version of the NPI, known as the NPI-C. The NPI-C includes expanded domains and items, and a clinician-rating methodology. This study evaluated the reliability and convergent validity of the NPI-C at ten international sites (seven languages). Methods: Face validity for 78 new items was obtained through a Delphi panel. A total of 128 dyads (caregivers/patients) from three severity categories of dementia (mild = 58, moderate = 49, severe = 21) were interviewed separately by two trained raters using two rating methods: the original NPI interview and a clinician-rated method. Rater 1 also administered four additional, established measures: the Apathy Evaluation Scale, the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Index, and the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia. Intraclass correlations were used to determine inter-rater reliability. Pearson correlations between the four relevant NPI-C domains and their corresponding outside measures were used for convergent validity. Results: Inter-rater reliability was strong for most items. Convergent validity was moderate (apathy and agitation) to strong (hallucinations and delusions; agitation and aberrant vocalization; and depression) for clinician ratings in NPI-C domains. Conclusion: Overall, the NPI-C shows promise as a versatile tool which can accurately measure NPS and which uses a uniform scale system to facilitate data comparisons across studies.

KW - agitation

KW - Alzheimer's disease

KW - apathy

KW - dementia

KW - depression

KW - neuropsychiatric inventory

KW - neuropsychiatric symptoms

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=77957319896&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=77957319896&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1017/S1041610210000876

DO - 10.1017/S1041610210000876

M3 - Article

VL - 22

SP - 984

EP - 994

JO - International Psychogeriatrics

JF - International Psychogeriatrics

SN - 1041-6102

IS - 6

ER -