The neurochemically diverse intermedius nucleus of the medulla as a source of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic input to the nucleus tractus solitarii

Ian J. Edwards, Mark L. Dallas, Sarah L. Poole, Carol J. Milligan, Yuchio Yanagawa, Gábor Szabó, F. Erdélyi, Susan A. Deuchars, Jim Deuchars

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Sensory afferent signals from neck muscles have been postulated to influence central cardiorespiratory control as components of postural reflexes, but neuronal pathways for this action have not been identified. The intermedius nucleus of the medulla (InM) is a target of neck muscle spindle afferents and is ideally located to influence such reflexes but is poorly investigated. To aid identification of the nucleus, we initially produced three-dimensional reconstructions of the InM in both mouse and rat. Neurochemical analysis including transgenic reporter mice expressing green fluorescent protein in GABA-synthesizing neurons, immunohistochemistry, and in situ hybridization revealed that the InM is neurochemically diverse, containing GABAegric and glutamatergic neurons with some degree of colocalization with parvalbumin, neuronal nitric oxide synthase, and calretinin. Projections from the InM to the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) were studied electrophysiologically in rat brainstem slices. Electrical stimulation of the NTS resulted in antidromically activated action potentials within InM neurons. In addition, electrical stimulation of the InM resulted in EPSPs that were mediated by excitatory amino acids and IPSPs mediated solely by GABAA receptors or by GABA A and glycine receptors. Chemical stimulation of the InM resulted in (1) a depolarization of NTS neurons that were blocked by NBQX (2,3-dioxo-6-nitro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrobenzo[f]quinoxaline-7-sulfonoamide) or kynurenic acid and (2) a hyperpolarization of NTS neurons that were blocked by bicuculline. Thus, the InM contains neurochemically diverse neurons and sends both excitatory and inhibitory projections to the NTS. These data provide a novel pathway that may underlie possible reflex changes in autonomic variables after neck muscle spindle afferent activation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)8324-8333
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Neuroscience
Volume27
Issue number31
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Aug 1 2007

Fingerprint

Solitary Nucleus
Neck Muscles
Neurons
Reflex
Muscle Spindles
GABA-A Receptors
Electric Stimulation
Chemical Stimulation
Kynurenic Acid
Calbindin 2
Glycine Receptors
GABAergic Neurons
Parvalbumins
Quinoxalines
Inhibitory Postsynaptic Potentials
Nitric Oxide Synthase Type I
Excitatory Amino Acids
Bicuculline
Excitatory Postsynaptic Potentials
Green Fluorescent Proteins

Keywords

  • Autonomic
  • Cardiovascular
  • Medulla oblongata
  • Neck
  • Posture
  • Respiration

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuroscience(all)

Cite this

The neurochemically diverse intermedius nucleus of the medulla as a source of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic input to the nucleus tractus solitarii. / Edwards, Ian J.; Dallas, Mark L.; Poole, Sarah L.; Milligan, Carol J.; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Szabó, Gábor; Erdélyi, F.; Deuchars, Susan A.; Deuchars, Jim.

In: Journal of Neuroscience, Vol. 27, No. 31, 01.08.2007, p. 8324-8333.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Edwards, Ian J. ; Dallas, Mark L. ; Poole, Sarah L. ; Milligan, Carol J. ; Yanagawa, Yuchio ; Szabó, Gábor ; Erdélyi, F. ; Deuchars, Susan A. ; Deuchars, Jim. / The neurochemically diverse intermedius nucleus of the medulla as a source of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic input to the nucleus tractus solitarii. In: Journal of Neuroscience. 2007 ; Vol. 27, No. 31. pp. 8324-8333.
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