The nature and origin of ultra-high energy cosmic ray particles

Peter L. Biermann, Laurentiu I. Caramete, Federico Fraschetti, László A. Gergely, Benjamin C. Harms, Emma Kun, Jon Paul Lundquist, Athina Meli, Biman B. Nath, Eun Suk Seo, Todor Stanev, Julia Becker Tjus

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


We outline two concepts to explain Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECRs), one based on radio galaxies and their relativistic jets and terminal hot spots, and one based on relativistic Super-Novae (SNe) or Gamma Ray Bursts (GR.Bs) in starburst galaxies, one matching the arrival direction data in the South (the nidio galaxy Cen A) and one in the North (the starburst galaxy M82). The most likely identification of the origin of observed Gravitational Wave (GW) events is stellar binary black hole (BH) mergers in starburst galaxies such as M82 with the highest rate of star formation, so the highest far-infrared (FIR ) luminosity, at the edge of the universe visible in 10-300 Hz GW s; at low heavy element abundance Zcfx the formation of stellar BHs extends to a larger mass range. A radio galaxy such as Cen A sequence of events involves first the merger of two Super-Massive Black Holes (SMBHs), with the associated ejection of low frequency GWs, then the formation of a new relativistic jet aiming into a new direction: Ubiquitous neutrino emission follows accompanied by compact Te\ photon emission, detectable more easily if the direction is towards Earth. The ejection of UHECRs is last. Both these sites are the perfect high energy physics laboratory: We have observed particles np to ZeV, neutrinos up to PeV, photons up to leV, 30-300 Hz GW events, and hope to detect soon of order/iHz to raHz GW events. Energy turnover in single low frequency GW events may be of order ~ 1063 erg. How can we further test these concepts? First of all by associating individual UHECR events, or directional groups of events, with chemical composition in both the Telescope Array (TA) Coll. and the Auger Coll. data. Second by identifying more TeV to PeV neutrinos with recent SMBH mergers. Third by detecting the order < mHz GW events of SMBH binaries, and identifying the galaxies host to the stellar BH mergers and their GW events in the range up to 300 Hz. Fourth by finally detecting the formation of the first generation of SMBHs and their mergers, surely a spectacular discovery. 1.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)103-121
Number of pages19
JournalFrascati Physics Series
Publication statusPublished - May 22 2016

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nuclear and High Energy Physics

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  • Cite this

    Biermann, P. L., Caramete, L. I., Fraschetti, F., Gergely, L. A., Harms, B. C., Kun, E., Lundquist, J. P., Meli, A., Nath, B. B., Seo, E. S., Stanev, T., & Tjus, J. B. (2016). The nature and origin of ultra-high energy cosmic ray particles. Frascati Physics Series, 64, 103-121.