The Medicago truncatula ortholog of Arabidopsis EIN2, sickle, is a negative regulator of symbiotic and pathogenic microbial associations

R. Varma Penmetsa, Pedro Uribe, Jonathan Anderson, Judith Lichtenzveig, John Charles Gish, Young Woo Nam, Eric Engstrom, Kun Xu, Gail Sckisel, Mariana Pereira, Jong Min Baek, Melina Lopez-Meyer, Sharon R. Long, Maria J. Harrison, Karam B. Singh, G. Kiss, Douglas R. Cook

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

183 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The plant hormone ethylene negatively regulates bacterial infection and nodule formation in legumes in response to symbiotic rhizobia, but the molecular mechanism(s) of ethylene action in symbiosis remain obscure. We have identified and characterized multiple mutant alleles of the MtSkl1 gene, which controls both ethylene sensitivity and nodule numbers. We show that this locus encodes the Medicago truncatula ortholog of the Arabidopsis ethylene signaling protein EIN2. In addition to the well-characterized role of MtSkl1 in rhizobial symbiosis, we show that MtSkl1 is involved in regulating early phases of the symbiotic interaction with mycorrhizal fungi, and in mediating root responses to cytokinin. MtSkl1 also functions in the defense against Rhizoctonia solani and Phytophthora medicaginis, with the latter interaction likely to involve positive feedback amplification of ethylene biosynthesis. Overexpression of the C-terminal domain of MtEIN2 is sufficient to block nodulation responses, consistent with previous reports in Arabidopsis on the activation of ethylene signaling. This same C-terminal region is uniquely conserved throughout the EIN2 homologs of angiosperms, which is consistent with its role as a higher plant-specific innovation essential to EIN2 function.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)580-595
Number of pages16
JournalPlant Journal
Volume55
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2008

Fingerprint

Medicago truncatula
Arabidopsis
ethylene
Symbiosis
symbiosis
Phytophthora medicaginis
Rhizoctonia
Phytophthora
Angiosperms
Cytokinins
Thanatephorus cucumeris
Rhizobium
bacterial infections
nodulation
Plant Growth Regulators
ethylene production
plant hormones
cytokinins
mycorrhizal fungi
Angiospermae

Keywords

  • EIN2
  • Ethylene
  • Medicago truncatula
  • Nodulation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Plant Science

Cite this

Varma Penmetsa, R., Uribe, P., Anderson, J., Lichtenzveig, J., Gish, J. C., Nam, Y. W., ... Cook, D. R. (2008). The Medicago truncatula ortholog of Arabidopsis EIN2, sickle, is a negative regulator of symbiotic and pathogenic microbial associations. Plant Journal, 55(4), 580-595. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-313X.2008.03531.x

The Medicago truncatula ortholog of Arabidopsis EIN2, sickle, is a negative regulator of symbiotic and pathogenic microbial associations. / Varma Penmetsa, R.; Uribe, Pedro; Anderson, Jonathan; Lichtenzveig, Judith; Gish, John Charles; Nam, Young Woo; Engstrom, Eric; Xu, Kun; Sckisel, Gail; Pereira, Mariana; Baek, Jong Min; Lopez-Meyer, Melina; Long, Sharon R.; Harrison, Maria J.; Singh, Karam B.; Kiss, G.; Cook, Douglas R.

In: Plant Journal, Vol. 55, No. 4, 08.2008, p. 580-595.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Varma Penmetsa, R, Uribe, P, Anderson, J, Lichtenzveig, J, Gish, JC, Nam, YW, Engstrom, E, Xu, K, Sckisel, G, Pereira, M, Baek, JM, Lopez-Meyer, M, Long, SR, Harrison, MJ, Singh, KB, Kiss, G & Cook, DR 2008, 'The Medicago truncatula ortholog of Arabidopsis EIN2, sickle, is a negative regulator of symbiotic and pathogenic microbial associations', Plant Journal, vol. 55, no. 4, pp. 580-595. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-313X.2008.03531.x
Varma Penmetsa, R. ; Uribe, Pedro ; Anderson, Jonathan ; Lichtenzveig, Judith ; Gish, John Charles ; Nam, Young Woo ; Engstrom, Eric ; Xu, Kun ; Sckisel, Gail ; Pereira, Mariana ; Baek, Jong Min ; Lopez-Meyer, Melina ; Long, Sharon R. ; Harrison, Maria J. ; Singh, Karam B. ; Kiss, G. ; Cook, Douglas R. / The Medicago truncatula ortholog of Arabidopsis EIN2, sickle, is a negative regulator of symbiotic and pathogenic microbial associations. In: Plant Journal. 2008 ; Vol. 55, No. 4. pp. 580-595.
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abstract = "The plant hormone ethylene negatively regulates bacterial infection and nodule formation in legumes in response to symbiotic rhizobia, but the molecular mechanism(s) of ethylene action in symbiosis remain obscure. We have identified and characterized multiple mutant alleles of the MtSkl1 gene, which controls both ethylene sensitivity and nodule numbers. We show that this locus encodes the Medicago truncatula ortholog of the Arabidopsis ethylene signaling protein EIN2. In addition to the well-characterized role of MtSkl1 in rhizobial symbiosis, we show that MtSkl1 is involved in regulating early phases of the symbiotic interaction with mycorrhizal fungi, and in mediating root responses to cytokinin. MtSkl1 also functions in the defense against Rhizoctonia solani and Phytophthora medicaginis, with the latter interaction likely to involve positive feedback amplification of ethylene biosynthesis. Overexpression of the C-terminal domain of MtEIN2 is sufficient to block nodulation responses, consistent with previous reports in Arabidopsis on the activation of ethylene signaling. This same C-terminal region is uniquely conserved throughout the EIN2 homologs of angiosperms, which is consistent with its role as a higher plant-specific innovation essential to EIN2 function.",
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