Lázár térképe és a ptolemaioszi vetület

Translated title of the contribution: The map of Lazarus (1528) and the Ptolemian projection

Gábor Timár, Gábor Molnár, Balázs Székely, Katalin Plihál

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

3 Citations (Scopus)


The strange orientation of the map of Lazarus (1528) has been a subject of a long debate of Hungarian cartographers in the 20th century. In this map, northeast is up, instead of the normal and traditional orientation where the north is up. It was long ago supposed that this orientation is a result of the local/regional usage of the Ptolemian projection of the world maps of the age of the map construction. If a Ptolemian conic projection is defined in the GIS environment with the parameters of Φ1=0°, Φ2=64°and Λ0=90° (from Greenwich), interestingly enough, the map can be rectified and the resulted image has right angles at its corners and all sides are horizontal or vertical in the Ptolemian coordinate system but not, of course, in the modern ones. The linear rectification errors in this projection are more or less equal to the quadratic ones in fitting to modern coordinate systems eg. to a UTM zone. It implies that the above projection can be considered at least as a substituting one or even the real projection of the Lazarus map. If we consider this projection as a Ptolemian one, it can be deduced that Lazarus used the equidistant conic projection with two standard parallels: the Equator and the Northern Circle, which is more or less the same as the mysterious Parallel of Thule in the maps of Ptolemy. In the map, however, the main directions are rotated by 90°; the grid north points to the original left indicated by the word 'Occidens' (west), which is considered as an error of the press preparation.

Translated title of the contributionThe map of Lazarus (1528) and the Ptolemian projection
Original languageHungarian
Pages (from-to)20-26
Number of pages7
JournalGeodezia es Kartografia
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1 2008

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geophysics
  • Earth-Surface Processes
  • Computers in Earth Sciences

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'The map of Lazarus (1528) and the Ptolemian projection'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

  • Cite this

    Timár, G., Molnár, G., Székely, B., & Plihál, K. (2008). Lázár térképe és a ptolemaioszi vetület. Geodezia es Kartografia, 60(7), 20-26.