The Hardness of Drinking Water Negatively while Socio-Economic Deprivation Positively Correlate with the Age-Adjusted Mortality Rates due to Cardiovascular Diseases in Hungarian Wine Regions

János Nagy, Sándor Sipka, Sándor SipkaJr, Judit Kocsis, Z. Horváth

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


We compared the age-adjusted death rates (AADR) for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) among 206,159 inhabitants analyzed between 2000 and 2010 in four wine territories of Hungary: Tokaj (white wines), Eger (mostly red wines), Balaton (mostly white wines), Szekszárd-Villány (mostly red wines) and Hódmezővásárhely (HMV) (not a wine region). The mortality rates were also assessed from the aspects of total hardness of drinking water and index of socio-economic deprivation (ID). We found the highest cardiovascular mortality in the Tokaj region and HMV. On the other hand, lower numbers of CVD were observed in Szekszárd-Villány, Balaton and Eger. These findings on cardiovascular mortality correlated negatively and significantly with the values of total hardness of drinking waters, which were low in Tokaj and HMV. They were higher in Szekszárd-Villány, Balaton and Eger. Additionally, and surprisingly, the mortality of CVD correlated positively and significantly with the ID values despite of the small numeric differences. The hardness of drinking water and the level of socio-economic state seem to have a greater impact on the mortality rate of CVD than the consumption of "red" or "white" dominant types of wines at a region. This study shows data on a population larger than 200,000 persons.

Original languageEnglish
JournalInternational journal of environmental research and public health
Issue number18
Publication statusPublished - Sep 16 2019



  • age-adjusted death rate
  • cardiovascular diseases
  • index of deprivation
  • red wine
  • water hardness
  • white wine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis

Cite this