The ER – Glycogen Particle – Phagophore Triangle: A Hub Connecting Glycogenolysis and Glycophagy?

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2 Citations (Scopus)


Glycogen particle is an intracellular organelle, which serves as a carbohydrate reserve in various cells. The function of glycogen is not entirely known in several cell types. Glycogen can be mobilized for different purposes, which can be related to cellular metabolic needs, intracellular redox state, metabolic state of the whole organism depending on regulatory aspects and also on cell functions. Essentially there are two different ways of glycogen degradation localized in different cellular organelles: glycogenolysis or lysosomal breakdown by acid alpha-glucosidase. While glycogenolysis occurs in glycogen particles connected to endoplasmic reticulum membrane, glycogen particles can be also combined with phagophores forming autophagosomes. A subdomain of the endoplasmic reticulum membrane - omegasomes - are the sites for phagophore formation. Thus, three organelles, the endoplasmic reticulum, the phagophore and the glycogen particle forms a triangle in which glycogen degradation occurs. The physiological significance, molecular logic and regulation of the two different catabolic paths are summarized and discussed with special aspect on the role of glycogen particles in intracellular organelle homeostasis and on molecular pathology of the cell. Pathological aspects and some diseases connected to the two different degradation pathways of glycogen particles are also detailed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-6
Number of pages6
JournalPathology and Oncology Research
Publication statusAccepted/In press - Jul 7 2018



  • Endoplasmic reticulum
  • Glycogen particle
  • Glycogenolysis
  • Glycophagy
  • Lysosome
  • Phagophore

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine
  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research

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