The effect of PACAP on rhythmic melatonin release of avian pineals

V. Csernus, R. Józsa, D. Reglodi, Tibor Hollósy, Anikó Somogyvári-Vigh, Akira Arimura

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a ubiquitous member of the VIP/secretin/glucagon bioactive peptide family. The distribution, concentration of PACAP, and its role in the control of rhythmic melatonin (MT) secretion from chicken pineal gland were studied. In the chicken pineal gland (ChPG), 40ng PACAP/g tissue was measured with radioimmunoassay. No midday-midnight differences in the PACAP content of the ChPG could be detected. Immunohistochemical studies of ChPG showed PACAP immunoreactive nerve fibers in the perivascular space and around the pinealocytes. Neither PACAP-labeled perikarya nor PACAP immunopositivity in the pinealocytes could be detected. In five day perifusion experiments, carried out under darkness, both MT and cAMP showed circadian rhythmic release pattern from explanted ChPG. One hour exposure of ChPG to PACAP induced transient (3-4h) elevation of MT and cAMP release. The responses were dose-dependent in the range from 1 to 100nM PACAP concentrations. The magnitude of the response was independent on the phase of the daily cycle in which PACAP was applied. cAMP levels during normal daily cycle and also PACAP-induced cAMP responses always preceded similar changes of MT by about an hour suggesting that cAMP is an intracellular intermediate in controlling MT release from the ChPG. At the same time PACAP, similarly to VIP, did not shift the phase of the in vitro circadian MT rhythm of the pineals. Our data reveal, that PACAP is present in nerve fibers in the chicken pineals and pineal cells contain functioning PACAP-sensitive receptors. PACAP apparently exerts a modulatory effect of the rhythmic MT release from the chicken pineal but does not modify the intrinsic biological clock in the avian pineal gland. Thus, cAMP-mediated intracellular mechanisms in ChPG are not components of the pineal circadian clock, but intermediaries between the clock-mechanism and MT release and may also be components of clock-independent MT release modifiers.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)62-69
Number of pages8
JournalGeneral and Comparative Endocrinology
Volume135
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1 2004

Fingerprint

Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide
adenylate cyclase
melatonin
Melatonin
polypeptides
Pineal Gland
pineal body
Chickens
chickens
nerve fibers
Nerve Fibers
Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide Receptors
Biological Clocks
secretin
biological clocks
Circadian Clocks
Secretin
Darkness
glucagon
Circadian Rhythm

Keywords

  • cAMP
  • Chicken
  • Circadian rhythm
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • In vitro
  • Melatonin
  • PACAP
  • Perifusion
  • Pineal gland

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology

Cite this

The effect of PACAP on rhythmic melatonin release of avian pineals. / Csernus, V.; Józsa, R.; Reglodi, D.; Hollósy, Tibor; Somogyvári-Vigh, Anikó; Arimura, Akira.

In: General and Comparative Endocrinology, Vol. 135, No. 1, 01.01.2004, p. 62-69.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Csernus, V. ; Józsa, R. ; Reglodi, D. ; Hollósy, Tibor ; Somogyvári-Vigh, Anikó ; Arimura, Akira. / The effect of PACAP on rhythmic melatonin release of avian pineals. In: General and Comparative Endocrinology. 2004 ; Vol. 135, No. 1. pp. 62-69.
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N2 - Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a ubiquitous member of the VIP/secretin/glucagon bioactive peptide family. The distribution, concentration of PACAP, and its role in the control of rhythmic melatonin (MT) secretion from chicken pineal gland were studied. In the chicken pineal gland (ChPG), 40ng PACAP/g tissue was measured with radioimmunoassay. No midday-midnight differences in the PACAP content of the ChPG could be detected. Immunohistochemical studies of ChPG showed PACAP immunoreactive nerve fibers in the perivascular space and around the pinealocytes. Neither PACAP-labeled perikarya nor PACAP immunopositivity in the pinealocytes could be detected. In five day perifusion experiments, carried out under darkness, both MT and cAMP showed circadian rhythmic release pattern from explanted ChPG. One hour exposure of ChPG to PACAP induced transient (3-4h) elevation of MT and cAMP release. The responses were dose-dependent in the range from 1 to 100nM PACAP concentrations. The magnitude of the response was independent on the phase of the daily cycle in which PACAP was applied. cAMP levels during normal daily cycle and also PACAP-induced cAMP responses always preceded similar changes of MT by about an hour suggesting that cAMP is an intracellular intermediate in controlling MT release from the ChPG. At the same time PACAP, similarly to VIP, did not shift the phase of the in vitro circadian MT rhythm of the pineals. Our data reveal, that PACAP is present in nerve fibers in the chicken pineals and pineal cells contain functioning PACAP-sensitive receptors. PACAP apparently exerts a modulatory effect of the rhythmic MT release from the chicken pineal but does not modify the intrinsic biological clock in the avian pineal gland. Thus, cAMP-mediated intracellular mechanisms in ChPG are not components of the pineal circadian clock, but intermediaries between the clock-mechanism and MT release and may also be components of clock-independent MT release modifiers.

AB - Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a ubiquitous member of the VIP/secretin/glucagon bioactive peptide family. The distribution, concentration of PACAP, and its role in the control of rhythmic melatonin (MT) secretion from chicken pineal gland were studied. In the chicken pineal gland (ChPG), 40ng PACAP/g tissue was measured with radioimmunoassay. No midday-midnight differences in the PACAP content of the ChPG could be detected. Immunohistochemical studies of ChPG showed PACAP immunoreactive nerve fibers in the perivascular space and around the pinealocytes. Neither PACAP-labeled perikarya nor PACAP immunopositivity in the pinealocytes could be detected. In five day perifusion experiments, carried out under darkness, both MT and cAMP showed circadian rhythmic release pattern from explanted ChPG. One hour exposure of ChPG to PACAP induced transient (3-4h) elevation of MT and cAMP release. The responses were dose-dependent in the range from 1 to 100nM PACAP concentrations. The magnitude of the response was independent on the phase of the daily cycle in which PACAP was applied. cAMP levels during normal daily cycle and also PACAP-induced cAMP responses always preceded similar changes of MT by about an hour suggesting that cAMP is an intracellular intermediate in controlling MT release from the ChPG. At the same time PACAP, similarly to VIP, did not shift the phase of the in vitro circadian MT rhythm of the pineals. Our data reveal, that PACAP is present in nerve fibers in the chicken pineals and pineal cells contain functioning PACAP-sensitive receptors. PACAP apparently exerts a modulatory effect of the rhythmic MT release from the chicken pineal but does not modify the intrinsic biological clock in the avian pineal gland. Thus, cAMP-mediated intracellular mechanisms in ChPG are not components of the pineal circadian clock, but intermediaries between the clock-mechanism and MT release and may also be components of clock-independent MT release modifiers.

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