Ecotoxicity of four Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii strains (ACT 9502, ACT 9503, ACT 9504, ACT 9505) isolated from Lake Balaton (Hungary) was evaluated in four aquatic bioassays including the Thamnocephalus platyurus acute lethality test; Daphnia magna acute immobilization assay; D. magna feeding inhibition assay and Danio rerio embryo developmental toxicity assay, assisted by chemical screening for known toxins by HPLC-MS. For reference, we analyzed in parallel the toxin content and toxic effects of two previously characterized toxin-producing strains: the Australian cylindrospermopsin producer AQS C. raciborskii and the anatoxins producer Oscillatoria sp. PCC 6506. Bioassays were used to evaluate the overall toxicity of the hydrophilic bioactive metabolites pool synthesized by the selected cyanobacteria.Chemical screening has proven that the ACT C. raciborskii extracts investigated did not contained cylindrospermopsins and anatoxins. The relative toxicity of the ACT C. raciborskii aqueous extracts observed in each bioassay was comparable to the effects recorded for the anatoxins producer PCC 6506 strain while toxicity values (EC50/LC50) calculated for the AQS extract were in general one order of magnitude lower.Concerning sublethal effects of ACT C. raciborskii extracts to the D. rerio embryogenesis, the general morphological abnormality observed was a significant retardation of development.Overall, our results suggest that C. raciborskii populating Lake Balaton produce metabolites with significant bioactive potencies. Therefore, continued investigation of these unknown compounds is required.
- Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii
- Fish embryogenesis
- Lake Balaton
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