The cooling effect of large-scale urban parks on surrounding area thermal comfort

Farshid Aram, Ebrahim Solgi, Ester Higueras García, Amir Mosavi, Annamária R. Várkonyi-Kóczy

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1 Citation (Scopus)


This empirical study investigates large urban park cooling effects on the thermal comfort of occupants in the vicinity of the main central park, located in Madrid, Spain. Data were gathered during hot summer days, using mobile observations and a questionnaire. The results showed that the cooling effect of this urban park of 125 ha area at a distance of 150 m could reduce air temperatures by an average of 0.63 °C and 1.28 °C for distances of 380 m and 665 meters from the park. Moreover, the degree of the physiological equivalent temperature (PET) index at a distance of 150 meters from the park is on average 2 °C PET and 2.3 °C PET less compared to distances of 380 m and 665 m, respectively. Considering the distance from the park, the correlation between occupant perceived thermal comfort (PTC) and PET is inverse. That is, augmenting the distance from the park increases PET, while the extent of PTC reduces accordingly. The correlation between these two factors at the nearest and furthest distances from the park is meaningful (p-value < 0.05). The results also showed that large-scale urban parks generally play a significant part in creating a cognitive state of high-perceived thermal comfort spaces for residents.

Original languageEnglish
Article number3904
Issue number20
Publication statusPublished - Oct 15 2019



  • Air temperature
  • Climate change mitigation and adaptation
  • Cooling effect
  • Global warming
  • Perceived thermal comfort
  • Physiological equivalent temperature
  • Smart cities
  • Sustainable cities
  • Sustainable urban development
  • Thermal comfort
  • Urban green spaces
  • Urban health
  • Urban heat island
  • Urban park
  • Urban resilience

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Energy (miscellaneous)
  • Control and Optimization
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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