The conceptualisation and measurement of DSM-5 internet gaming disorder

The development of the IGD-20 test

Halley M. Pontes, Orsolya Király, Z. Demetrovics, Mark D. Griffiths

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

104 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Over the last decade, there has been growing concern about 'gaming addiction' and its widely documented detrimental impacts on a minority of individuals that play excessively. The latest (fifth) edition of the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) included nine criteria for the potential diagnosis of Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) and noted that it was a condition that warranted further empirical study. Aim: The main aim of this study was to develop a valid and reliable standardised psychometrically robust tool in addition to providing empirically supported cut-off points. Methods: A sample of 1003 gamers (85.2% males; mean age 26 years) from 57 different countries were recruited via online gaming forums. Validity was assessed by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), criterion-related validity, and concurrent validity. Latent profile analysis was also carried to distinguish disordered gamers from non-disordered gamers. Sensitivity and specificity analyses were performed to determine an empirical cut-off for the test. Results: The CFA confirmed the viability of IGD-20 Test with a six-factor structure (salience, mood modification, tolerance, withdrawal, conflict and relapse) for the assessment of IGD according to the nine criteria from DSM-5. The IGD-20 Test proved to be valid and reliable. According to the latent profile analysis, 5.3% of the total participants were classed as disordered gamers. Additionally, an optimal empirical cut-off of 71 points (out of 100) seemed to be adequate according to the sensitivity and specificity analyses carried. Conclusions: The present findings support the viability of the IGD-20 Test as an adequate standardised psychometrically robust tool for assessing internet gaming disorder. Consequently, the new instrument represents the first step towards unification and consensus in the field of gaming studies.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere110137
JournalPLoS One
Volume9
Issue number10
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Oct 14 2014

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Internet
testing
Factor analysis
Statistical Factor Analysis
viability
Sensitivity and Specificity
behavior disorders
relapse
emotions
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
Psychiatry
Consensus
Recurrence
sampling
factor analysis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

The conceptualisation and measurement of DSM-5 internet gaming disorder : The development of the IGD-20 test. / Pontes, Halley M.; Király, Orsolya; Demetrovics, Z.; Griffiths, Mark D.

In: PLoS One, Vol. 9, No. 10, e110137, 14.10.2014.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Pontes, Halley M. ; Király, Orsolya ; Demetrovics, Z. ; Griffiths, Mark D. / The conceptualisation and measurement of DSM-5 internet gaming disorder : The development of the IGD-20 test. In: PLoS One. 2014 ; Vol. 9, No. 10.
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abstract = "Background: Over the last decade, there has been growing concern about 'gaming addiction' and its widely documented detrimental impacts on a minority of individuals that play excessively. The latest (fifth) edition of the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) included nine criteria for the potential diagnosis of Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) and noted that it was a condition that warranted further empirical study. Aim: The main aim of this study was to develop a valid and reliable standardised psychometrically robust tool in addition to providing empirically supported cut-off points. Methods: A sample of 1003 gamers (85.2{\%} males; mean age 26 years) from 57 different countries were recruited via online gaming forums. Validity was assessed by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), criterion-related validity, and concurrent validity. Latent profile analysis was also carried to distinguish disordered gamers from non-disordered gamers. Sensitivity and specificity analyses were performed to determine an empirical cut-off for the test. Results: The CFA confirmed the viability of IGD-20 Test with a six-factor structure (salience, mood modification, tolerance, withdrawal, conflict and relapse) for the assessment of IGD according to the nine criteria from DSM-5. The IGD-20 Test proved to be valid and reliable. According to the latent profile analysis, 5.3{\%} of the total participants were classed as disordered gamers. Additionally, an optimal empirical cut-off of 71 points (out of 100) seemed to be adequate according to the sensitivity and specificity analyses carried. Conclusions: The present findings support the viability of the IGD-20 Test as an adequate standardised psychometrically robust tool for assessing internet gaming disorder. Consequently, the new instrument represents the first step towards unification and consensus in the field of gaming studies.",
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