The close link between suicide attempts and mixed (bipolar) depression

Implications for suicide prevention

Judit Balázs, Franco Benazzi, Z. Ríhmer, Annamária Rihmer, K. K. Akiskal, H. S. Akiskal

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

215 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Previous reports have shown a significant relationship between suicide ideation and mixed depression. The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence and clinical characteristics of mixed depression among non-violent suicide attempters. Methods: Using a structured interview (modified Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview) and assessing all the symptoms of 16 psychiatric diagnoses, the authors examined 100 consecutive nonviolent suicide attempters (aged 18-65) within 24 h after their attempts. Mixed depression was defined as a major depressive episode (MDE)/dysthymic disorder plus 3 or more co-occurring hypomanic symptoms, according to the definition validated by Akiskal and Benazzi [Akiskal, H.S., Benazzi, F., 2003a. Delineating depressive mixed states: Their therapeutic significance. Clin. Approaches Bipolar Disord. 2, 41-47, Akiskal, H.S., Benazzi, F., 2003b. Family history validation of the bipolar nature of depressive mixed states. J. Affect. Disord. 73, 113-122.]. Results: Current mixed depression was present in 63.0% in the total sample, and in 70.8% among the 89 depressive suicide attempters. Irritability, distractibility and psychomotor agitation were present in more than 90% of the subjects with mixed depression. The rate of mixed depression was significantly higher among bipolar than non-bipolar depressive suicide attempters (90% vs. 62%). Patients with mixed depression had the following concurrent disorders: bipolar disorders 41.0%, panic disorder 30.0%, generalized anxiety disorder 89.0%, alcohol abuse/dependence 56.0%, and substance abuse 27.0%. Mixed depression versus non-mixed depression had the following significant associations (odds ratio = OR): females 2.4, bipolar II disorder 9.3, generalized anxiety disorder 41.3, irritability 101.6 and psychomotor agitation 61.1. Limitations: The study didn't include suicide attempters with very high risk of fatality. Conclusions: The important new finding of this study is the very high prevalence of mixed depression among depressed suicide attempters. The rates of mixed depression among bipolar and non-bipolar depressive suicide attempters were much higher than previously reported among nonsuicidal bipolar II and unipolar depressive outpatients, suggesting that suicide attempters come mainly from mixed depressives with predominantly bipolar II base. Irritability and psychomotor agitation were the strongest predictors of suicide attempt. From a public health standpoint, our data highlight the necessity of detecting and treating mixed (bipolar) depression in the prevention of suicidal behaviour.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)133-138
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Affective Disorders
Volume91
Issue number2-3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2006

Fingerprint

Bipolar Disorder
Suicide
Depression
Psychomotor Agitation
Anxiety Disorders
Alcoholism
Dysthymic Disorder
Interviews
Panic Disorder
Mental Disorders
Substance-Related Disorders
Outpatients
Public Health
Odds Ratio

Keywords

  • Bipolar disorder
  • Depression
  • Depressive mixed state
  • Mixed depression
  • Suicide attempt
  • Suicide prevention

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Behavioral Neuroscience
  • Biological Psychiatry
  • Neurology
  • Psychology(all)

Cite this

The close link between suicide attempts and mixed (bipolar) depression : Implications for suicide prevention. / Balázs, Judit; Benazzi, Franco; Ríhmer, Z.; Rihmer, Annamária; Akiskal, K. K.; Akiskal, H. S.

In: Journal of Affective Disorders, Vol. 91, No. 2-3, 04.2006, p. 133-138.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Balázs, Judit ; Benazzi, Franco ; Ríhmer, Z. ; Rihmer, Annamária ; Akiskal, K. K. ; Akiskal, H. S. / The close link between suicide attempts and mixed (bipolar) depression : Implications for suicide prevention. In: Journal of Affective Disorders. 2006 ; Vol. 91, No. 2-3. pp. 133-138.
@article{a8a2fbc3c3864f1d9fe23a4e3be3630a,
title = "The close link between suicide attempts and mixed (bipolar) depression: Implications for suicide prevention",
abstract = "Background: Previous reports have shown a significant relationship between suicide ideation and mixed depression. The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence and clinical characteristics of mixed depression among non-violent suicide attempters. Methods: Using a structured interview (modified Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview) and assessing all the symptoms of 16 psychiatric diagnoses, the authors examined 100 consecutive nonviolent suicide attempters (aged 18-65) within 24 h after their attempts. Mixed depression was defined as a major depressive episode (MDE)/dysthymic disorder plus 3 or more co-occurring hypomanic symptoms, according to the definition validated by Akiskal and Benazzi [Akiskal, H.S., Benazzi, F., 2003a. Delineating depressive mixed states: Their therapeutic significance. Clin. Approaches Bipolar Disord. 2, 41-47, Akiskal, H.S., Benazzi, F., 2003b. Family history validation of the bipolar nature of depressive mixed states. J. Affect. Disord. 73, 113-122.]. Results: Current mixed depression was present in 63.0{\%} in the total sample, and in 70.8{\%} among the 89 depressive suicide attempters. Irritability, distractibility and psychomotor agitation were present in more than 90{\%} of the subjects with mixed depression. The rate of mixed depression was significantly higher among bipolar than non-bipolar depressive suicide attempters (90{\%} vs. 62{\%}). Patients with mixed depression had the following concurrent disorders: bipolar disorders 41.0{\%}, panic disorder 30.0{\%}, generalized anxiety disorder 89.0{\%}, alcohol abuse/dependence 56.0{\%}, and substance abuse 27.0{\%}. Mixed depression versus non-mixed depression had the following significant associations (odds ratio = OR): females 2.4, bipolar II disorder 9.3, generalized anxiety disorder 41.3, irritability 101.6 and psychomotor agitation 61.1. Limitations: The study didn't include suicide attempters with very high risk of fatality. Conclusions: The important new finding of this study is the very high prevalence of mixed depression among depressed suicide attempters. The rates of mixed depression among bipolar and non-bipolar depressive suicide attempters were much higher than previously reported among nonsuicidal bipolar II and unipolar depressive outpatients, suggesting that suicide attempters come mainly from mixed depressives with predominantly bipolar II base. Irritability and psychomotor agitation were the strongest predictors of suicide attempt. From a public health standpoint, our data highlight the necessity of detecting and treating mixed (bipolar) depression in the prevention of suicidal behaviour.",
keywords = "Bipolar disorder, Depression, Depressive mixed state, Mixed depression, Suicide attempt, Suicide prevention",
author = "Judit Bal{\'a}zs and Franco Benazzi and Z. R{\'i}hmer and Annam{\'a}ria Rihmer and Akiskal, {K. K.} and Akiskal, {H. S.}",
year = "2006",
month = "4",
doi = "10.1016/j.jad.2005.12.049",
language = "English",
volume = "91",
pages = "133--138",
journal = "Journal of Affective Disorders",
issn = "0165-0327",
publisher = "Elsevier",
number = "2-3",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - The close link between suicide attempts and mixed (bipolar) depression

T2 - Implications for suicide prevention

AU - Balázs, Judit

AU - Benazzi, Franco

AU - Ríhmer, Z.

AU - Rihmer, Annamária

AU - Akiskal, K. K.

AU - Akiskal, H. S.

PY - 2006/4

Y1 - 2006/4

N2 - Background: Previous reports have shown a significant relationship between suicide ideation and mixed depression. The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence and clinical characteristics of mixed depression among non-violent suicide attempters. Methods: Using a structured interview (modified Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview) and assessing all the symptoms of 16 psychiatric diagnoses, the authors examined 100 consecutive nonviolent suicide attempters (aged 18-65) within 24 h after their attempts. Mixed depression was defined as a major depressive episode (MDE)/dysthymic disorder plus 3 or more co-occurring hypomanic symptoms, according to the definition validated by Akiskal and Benazzi [Akiskal, H.S., Benazzi, F., 2003a. Delineating depressive mixed states: Their therapeutic significance. Clin. Approaches Bipolar Disord. 2, 41-47, Akiskal, H.S., Benazzi, F., 2003b. Family history validation of the bipolar nature of depressive mixed states. J. Affect. Disord. 73, 113-122.]. Results: Current mixed depression was present in 63.0% in the total sample, and in 70.8% among the 89 depressive suicide attempters. Irritability, distractibility and psychomotor agitation were present in more than 90% of the subjects with mixed depression. The rate of mixed depression was significantly higher among bipolar than non-bipolar depressive suicide attempters (90% vs. 62%). Patients with mixed depression had the following concurrent disorders: bipolar disorders 41.0%, panic disorder 30.0%, generalized anxiety disorder 89.0%, alcohol abuse/dependence 56.0%, and substance abuse 27.0%. Mixed depression versus non-mixed depression had the following significant associations (odds ratio = OR): females 2.4, bipolar II disorder 9.3, generalized anxiety disorder 41.3, irritability 101.6 and psychomotor agitation 61.1. Limitations: The study didn't include suicide attempters with very high risk of fatality. Conclusions: The important new finding of this study is the very high prevalence of mixed depression among depressed suicide attempters. The rates of mixed depression among bipolar and non-bipolar depressive suicide attempters were much higher than previously reported among nonsuicidal bipolar II and unipolar depressive outpatients, suggesting that suicide attempters come mainly from mixed depressives with predominantly bipolar II base. Irritability and psychomotor agitation were the strongest predictors of suicide attempt. From a public health standpoint, our data highlight the necessity of detecting and treating mixed (bipolar) depression in the prevention of suicidal behaviour.

AB - Background: Previous reports have shown a significant relationship between suicide ideation and mixed depression. The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence and clinical characteristics of mixed depression among non-violent suicide attempters. Methods: Using a structured interview (modified Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview) and assessing all the symptoms of 16 psychiatric diagnoses, the authors examined 100 consecutive nonviolent suicide attempters (aged 18-65) within 24 h after their attempts. Mixed depression was defined as a major depressive episode (MDE)/dysthymic disorder plus 3 or more co-occurring hypomanic symptoms, according to the definition validated by Akiskal and Benazzi [Akiskal, H.S., Benazzi, F., 2003a. Delineating depressive mixed states: Their therapeutic significance. Clin. Approaches Bipolar Disord. 2, 41-47, Akiskal, H.S., Benazzi, F., 2003b. Family history validation of the bipolar nature of depressive mixed states. J. Affect. Disord. 73, 113-122.]. Results: Current mixed depression was present in 63.0% in the total sample, and in 70.8% among the 89 depressive suicide attempters. Irritability, distractibility and psychomotor agitation were present in more than 90% of the subjects with mixed depression. The rate of mixed depression was significantly higher among bipolar than non-bipolar depressive suicide attempters (90% vs. 62%). Patients with mixed depression had the following concurrent disorders: bipolar disorders 41.0%, panic disorder 30.0%, generalized anxiety disorder 89.0%, alcohol abuse/dependence 56.0%, and substance abuse 27.0%. Mixed depression versus non-mixed depression had the following significant associations (odds ratio = OR): females 2.4, bipolar II disorder 9.3, generalized anxiety disorder 41.3, irritability 101.6 and psychomotor agitation 61.1. Limitations: The study didn't include suicide attempters with very high risk of fatality. Conclusions: The important new finding of this study is the very high prevalence of mixed depression among depressed suicide attempters. The rates of mixed depression among bipolar and non-bipolar depressive suicide attempters were much higher than previously reported among nonsuicidal bipolar II and unipolar depressive outpatients, suggesting that suicide attempters come mainly from mixed depressives with predominantly bipolar II base. Irritability and psychomotor agitation were the strongest predictors of suicide attempt. From a public health standpoint, our data highlight the necessity of detecting and treating mixed (bipolar) depression in the prevention of suicidal behaviour.

KW - Bipolar disorder

KW - Depression

KW - Depressive mixed state

KW - Mixed depression

KW - Suicide attempt

KW - Suicide prevention

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=33644994494&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=33644994494&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.jad.2005.12.049

DO - 10.1016/j.jad.2005.12.049

M3 - Article

VL - 91

SP - 133

EP - 138

JO - Journal of Affective Disorders

JF - Journal of Affective Disorders

SN - 0165-0327

IS - 2-3

ER -