The broad-lined type Ic SN 2012ap and the nature of relativistic supernovae lacking a gamma-ray burst detection

D. Milisavljevic, R. Margutti, J. T. Parrent, A. M. Soderberg, R. A. Fesen, P. Mazzali, K. Maeda, N. E. Sanders, S. B. Cenko, J. M. Silverman, A. V. Filippenko, A. Kamble, S. Chakraborti, M. R. Drout, R. P. Kirshner, T. E. Pickering, K. Kawabata, T. Hattori, E. Y. Hsiao, M. D. Stritzinger & 3 others G. H. Marion, J. Vinkó, J. C. Wheeler

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

We present ultraviolet, optical, and near-infrared observations of SN 2012ap, a broad-lined Type Ic supernova in the galaxy NGC 1729 that produced a relativistic and rapidly decelerating outflow without a gamma-ray burst signature. Photometry and spectroscopy follow the flux evolution from -13 to +272 days past the B-band maximum of -17.4 ± 0.5 mag. The spectra are dominated by Fe II, O I, and Ca II absorption lines at ejecta velocities of v 20,000 km s-1 that change slowly over time. Other spectral absorption lines are consistent with contributions from photospheric He I, and hydrogen may also be present at higher velocities (v ≳ 27,000 km s-1). We use these observations to estimate explosion properties and derive a total ejecta mass of 2.7 M , a kinetic energy of 1.0 × 1052 erg, and a 56Ni mass of 0.1-0.2 M . Nebular spectra (t > 200 days) exhibit an asymmetric double-peaked [O I] λλ6300, 6364 emission profile that we associate with absorption in the supernova interior, although toroidal ejecta geometry is an alternative explanation. SN 2012ap joins SN 2009bb as another exceptional supernova that shows evidence for a central engine (e.g., black hole accretion or magnetar) capable of launching a non-negligible portion of ejecta to relativistic velocities without a coincident gamma-ray burst detection. Defining attributes of their progenitor systems may be related to notable observed properties including environmental metallicities of Z ≳ Z , moderate to high levels of host galaxy extinction (E(B-V) > 0.4 mag), detection of high-velocity helium at early epochs, and a high relative flux ratio of [Ca II]/[O I] >1 at nebular epochs. These events support the notion that jet activity at various energy scales may be present in a wide range of supernovae.

Original languageEnglish
Article number51
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Volume799
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 20 2015

Fingerprint

ejecta
gamma ray bursts
supernovae
time measurement
relativistic velocity
galaxies
magnetars
launching
erg
helium
kinetic energy
metallicity
photometry
engines
explosions
explosion
engine
near infrared
extinction
outflow

Keywords

  • gamma-ray burst: general
  • supernovae: general
  • supernovae: individual (SN 2012ap)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nuclear and High Energy Physics

Cite this

Milisavljevic, D., Margutti, R., Parrent, J. T., Soderberg, A. M., Fesen, R. A., Mazzali, P., ... Wheeler, J. C. (2015). The broad-lined type Ic SN 2012ap and the nature of relativistic supernovae lacking a gamma-ray burst detection. Astrophysical Journal, 799(1), [51]. https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/799/1/51

The broad-lined type Ic SN 2012ap and the nature of relativistic supernovae lacking a gamma-ray burst detection. / Milisavljevic, D.; Margutti, R.; Parrent, J. T.; Soderberg, A. M.; Fesen, R. A.; Mazzali, P.; Maeda, K.; Sanders, N. E.; Cenko, S. B.; Silverman, J. M.; Filippenko, A. V.; Kamble, A.; Chakraborti, S.; Drout, M. R.; Kirshner, R. P.; Pickering, T. E.; Kawabata, K.; Hattori, T.; Hsiao, E. Y.; Stritzinger, M. D.; Marion, G. H.; Vinkó, J.; Wheeler, J. C.

In: Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 799, No. 1, 51, 20.01.2015.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Milisavljevic, D, Margutti, R, Parrent, JT, Soderberg, AM, Fesen, RA, Mazzali, P, Maeda, K, Sanders, NE, Cenko, SB, Silverman, JM, Filippenko, AV, Kamble, A, Chakraborti, S, Drout, MR, Kirshner, RP, Pickering, TE, Kawabata, K, Hattori, T, Hsiao, EY, Stritzinger, MD, Marion, GH, Vinkó, J & Wheeler, JC 2015, 'The broad-lined type Ic SN 2012ap and the nature of relativistic supernovae lacking a gamma-ray burst detection', Astrophysical Journal, vol. 799, no. 1, 51. https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/799/1/51
Milisavljevic, D. ; Margutti, R. ; Parrent, J. T. ; Soderberg, A. M. ; Fesen, R. A. ; Mazzali, P. ; Maeda, K. ; Sanders, N. E. ; Cenko, S. B. ; Silverman, J. M. ; Filippenko, A. V. ; Kamble, A. ; Chakraborti, S. ; Drout, M. R. ; Kirshner, R. P. ; Pickering, T. E. ; Kawabata, K. ; Hattori, T. ; Hsiao, E. Y. ; Stritzinger, M. D. ; Marion, G. H. ; Vinkó, J. ; Wheeler, J. C. / The broad-lined type Ic SN 2012ap and the nature of relativistic supernovae lacking a gamma-ray burst detection. In: Astrophysical Journal. 2015 ; Vol. 799, No. 1.
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AU - Milisavljevic, D.

AU - Margutti, R.

AU - Parrent, J. T.

AU - Soderberg, A. M.

AU - Fesen, R. A.

AU - Mazzali, P.

AU - Maeda, K.

AU - Sanders, N. E.

AU - Cenko, S. B.

AU - Silverman, J. M.

AU - Filippenko, A. V.

AU - Kamble, A.

AU - Chakraborti, S.

AU - Drout, M. R.

AU - Kirshner, R. P.

AU - Pickering, T. E.

AU - Kawabata, K.

AU - Hattori, T.

AU - Hsiao, E. Y.

AU - Stritzinger, M. D.

AU - Marion, G. H.

AU - Vinkó, J.

AU - Wheeler, J. C.

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N2 - We present ultraviolet, optical, and near-infrared observations of SN 2012ap, a broad-lined Type Ic supernova in the galaxy NGC 1729 that produced a relativistic and rapidly decelerating outflow without a gamma-ray burst signature. Photometry and spectroscopy follow the flux evolution from -13 to +272 days past the B-band maximum of -17.4 ± 0.5 mag. The spectra are dominated by Fe II, O I, and Ca II absorption lines at ejecta velocities of v 20,000 km s-1 that change slowly over time. Other spectral absorption lines are consistent with contributions from photospheric He I, and hydrogen may also be present at higher velocities (v ≳ 27,000 km s-1). We use these observations to estimate explosion properties and derive a total ejecta mass of 2.7 M ⊙, a kinetic energy of 1.0 × 1052 erg, and a 56Ni mass of 0.1-0.2 M ⊙. Nebular spectra (t > 200 days) exhibit an asymmetric double-peaked [O I] λλ6300, 6364 emission profile that we associate with absorption in the supernova interior, although toroidal ejecta geometry is an alternative explanation. SN 2012ap joins SN 2009bb as another exceptional supernova that shows evidence for a central engine (e.g., black hole accretion or magnetar) capable of launching a non-negligible portion of ejecta to relativistic velocities without a coincident gamma-ray burst detection. Defining attributes of their progenitor systems may be related to notable observed properties including environmental metallicities of Z ≳ Z ⊙, moderate to high levels of host galaxy extinction (E(B-V) > 0.4 mag), detection of high-velocity helium at early epochs, and a high relative flux ratio of [Ca II]/[O I] >1 at nebular epochs. These events support the notion that jet activity at various energy scales may be present in a wide range of supernovae.

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