Taking advantage of the tunable conductivity of graphene under high terahertz (THz) electric field, a graphene-metal hybrid metamaterial consisting of an array of three adjoined orthogonally oriented split-ring resonators (SRRs) is proposed and experimentally demonstrated to show a maximum modulation depth of 23% in transmission when the THz peak field reaches 305 kV/cm. The transmission of the sample is dominated by the antisymmetric and symmetric resonant modes originating from the strong magneto-inductive and conductive coupling among the three SRRs, respectively. Numerical simulations and model calculations based on a coupled oscillator theory were performed to explain the modulation process. It is found that the graphene coating impairs the resonances by increasing the damping of the modes and decreasing the coupling between the SRRs whereas the strong THz field restores the resonances by decreasing the conductivity of graphene.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics