Temperature course in small volume [18O]water targets for [18F]F- production

J. Steinbach, K. Guenther, E. Loesel, G. Grunwald, P. Mikecz, L. Andó, F. Szelecsényi, G. J. Beyer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

24 Citations (Scopus)


In order to understand the thermal processes occurring within a water target we carried out calculations of heat transfer of the beam energy absorbed from the target water to the target back wall, and compared them with the temperatures measured during irradiations. It was shown, by both the experimental results and the heat transfer calculations, that, at high beam currents, static small volume water targets have a working temperature at the boiling point of the target water. The heat transfer occurs only by movement of the water molecules generated by the boiling target water and not by heat conduction or free convection alone. There is no heat transfer arising from vaporization and reflux.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)753-756
Number of pages4
JournalInternational Journal of Radiation Applications and Instrumentation. Part
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 1990

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiation
  • Engineering(all)

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