Temperament and suicide

A national study

Elie G. Karam, Lynn Itani, John Fayyad, Elie Hantouche, Aimee Karam, Zeina Mneimneh, Hagop Akiskal, Z. Ríhmer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

26 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Abstract Background: Several studies have shown temperament variants in suicidality. Yet, to our knowledge, the association between temperaments and suicide attempts has not been studied on a nationally representative level nor systematically in subjects with no mental disorders. Also, although hyperthymic temperament is recognized as protective of most mental disorders, its role in the protection from self-harm remains inconclusive. Methods: The study is based on nationally representative data of all Lebanese adults. Mental disorders were assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, whereas the five affective temperaments were assessed using the TEMPS-A. Results: Anxious temperament is a solid and strong risk factor for suicide attempts in subjects with (OR: 10.1) and without (OR: 9.0) mental disorders. Depressive (OR: 4.3) and irritable (OR: 5.1) temperaments are risk factors for suicide attempt among subjects with mental disorders. Hyperthymic temperament plays a dual role in females with mental disorders: while the hyperthymic trait "having self-confidence" is strongly protective of suicide attempts, "liking to be the boss", "getting into heated arguments", and "the right and privilege to do as I please" are hyperthymic risk traits for suicide attempts reflecting the "dark side" of the hyperthymic temperament. Interestingly, these three hyperthymic risk traits - in the absence of "having self-confidence" - are a universal risk for suicide attempt in females with mental disorder. Limitations: Social desirability could have led to the under-reporting of suicide attempts and mental disorders. Conclusions: The anxious temperament plays a strong role in predicting suicide attempts in the community, in the presence and absence of diagnosable mental disorders. The irritable and the depressive temperaments are additional risks in subjects with mental disorders. The dual role of the hyperthymic temperament is quite interesting: while it is protective of suicidal behavior, it also has a dark side in subjects with mental disorders.

Original languageEnglish
Article number7483
Pages (from-to)123-128
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Affective Disorders
Volume184
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jun 15 2015

Fingerprint

Temperament
Mental Disorders
Suicide
Social Desirability
Interviews

Keywords

  • Hyperthymic
  • Suicide
  • Temperament

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Clinical Psychology

Cite this

Karam, E. G., Itani, L., Fayyad, J., Hantouche, E., Karam, A., Mneimneh, Z., ... Ríhmer, Z. (2015). Temperament and suicide: A national study. Journal of Affective Disorders, 184, 123-128. [7483]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2015.05.047

Temperament and suicide : A national study. / Karam, Elie G.; Itani, Lynn; Fayyad, John; Hantouche, Elie; Karam, Aimee; Mneimneh, Zeina; Akiskal, Hagop; Ríhmer, Z.

In: Journal of Affective Disorders, Vol. 184, 7483, 15.06.2015, p. 123-128.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Karam, EG, Itani, L, Fayyad, J, Hantouche, E, Karam, A, Mneimneh, Z, Akiskal, H & Ríhmer, Z 2015, 'Temperament and suicide: A national study', Journal of Affective Disorders, vol. 184, 7483, pp. 123-128. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2015.05.047
Karam EG, Itani L, Fayyad J, Hantouche E, Karam A, Mneimneh Z et al. Temperament and suicide: A national study. Journal of Affective Disorders. 2015 Jun 15;184:123-128. 7483. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2015.05.047
Karam, Elie G. ; Itani, Lynn ; Fayyad, John ; Hantouche, Elie ; Karam, Aimee ; Mneimneh, Zeina ; Akiskal, Hagop ; Ríhmer, Z. / Temperament and suicide : A national study. In: Journal of Affective Disorders. 2015 ; Vol. 184. pp. 123-128.
@article{9ddc1e046fa747f48916fe85a7c2a520,
title = "Temperament and suicide: A national study",
abstract = "Abstract Background: Several studies have shown temperament variants in suicidality. Yet, to our knowledge, the association between temperaments and suicide attempts has not been studied on a nationally representative level nor systematically in subjects with no mental disorders. Also, although hyperthymic temperament is recognized as protective of most mental disorders, its role in the protection from self-harm remains inconclusive. Methods: The study is based on nationally representative data of all Lebanese adults. Mental disorders were assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, whereas the five affective temperaments were assessed using the TEMPS-A. Results: Anxious temperament is a solid and strong risk factor for suicide attempts in subjects with (OR: 10.1) and without (OR: 9.0) mental disorders. Depressive (OR: 4.3) and irritable (OR: 5.1) temperaments are risk factors for suicide attempt among subjects with mental disorders. Hyperthymic temperament plays a dual role in females with mental disorders: while the hyperthymic trait {"}having self-confidence{"} is strongly protective of suicide attempts, {"}liking to be the boss{"}, {"}getting into heated arguments{"}, and {"}the right and privilege to do as I please{"} are hyperthymic risk traits for suicide attempts reflecting the {"}dark side{"} of the hyperthymic temperament. Interestingly, these three hyperthymic risk traits - in the absence of {"}having self-confidence{"} - are a universal risk for suicide attempt in females with mental disorder. Limitations: Social desirability could have led to the under-reporting of suicide attempts and mental disorders. Conclusions: The anxious temperament plays a strong role in predicting suicide attempts in the community, in the presence and absence of diagnosable mental disorders. The irritable and the depressive temperaments are additional risks in subjects with mental disorders. The dual role of the hyperthymic temperament is quite interesting: while it is protective of suicidal behavior, it also has a dark side in subjects with mental disorders.",
keywords = "Hyperthymic, Suicide, Temperament",
author = "Karam, {Elie G.} and Lynn Itani and John Fayyad and Elie Hantouche and Aimee Karam and Zeina Mneimneh and Hagop Akiskal and Z. R{\'i}hmer",
year = "2015",
month = "6",
day = "15",
doi = "10.1016/j.jad.2015.05.047",
language = "English",
volume = "184",
pages = "123--128",
journal = "Journal of Affective Disorders",
issn = "0165-0327",
publisher = "Elsevier",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Temperament and suicide

T2 - A national study

AU - Karam, Elie G.

AU - Itani, Lynn

AU - Fayyad, John

AU - Hantouche, Elie

AU - Karam, Aimee

AU - Mneimneh, Zeina

AU - Akiskal, Hagop

AU - Ríhmer, Z.

PY - 2015/6/15

Y1 - 2015/6/15

N2 - Abstract Background: Several studies have shown temperament variants in suicidality. Yet, to our knowledge, the association between temperaments and suicide attempts has not been studied on a nationally representative level nor systematically in subjects with no mental disorders. Also, although hyperthymic temperament is recognized as protective of most mental disorders, its role in the protection from self-harm remains inconclusive. Methods: The study is based on nationally representative data of all Lebanese adults. Mental disorders were assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, whereas the five affective temperaments were assessed using the TEMPS-A. Results: Anxious temperament is a solid and strong risk factor for suicide attempts in subjects with (OR: 10.1) and without (OR: 9.0) mental disorders. Depressive (OR: 4.3) and irritable (OR: 5.1) temperaments are risk factors for suicide attempt among subjects with mental disorders. Hyperthymic temperament plays a dual role in females with mental disorders: while the hyperthymic trait "having self-confidence" is strongly protective of suicide attempts, "liking to be the boss", "getting into heated arguments", and "the right and privilege to do as I please" are hyperthymic risk traits for suicide attempts reflecting the "dark side" of the hyperthymic temperament. Interestingly, these three hyperthymic risk traits - in the absence of "having self-confidence" - are a universal risk for suicide attempt in females with mental disorder. Limitations: Social desirability could have led to the under-reporting of suicide attempts and mental disorders. Conclusions: The anxious temperament plays a strong role in predicting suicide attempts in the community, in the presence and absence of diagnosable mental disorders. The irritable and the depressive temperaments are additional risks in subjects with mental disorders. The dual role of the hyperthymic temperament is quite interesting: while it is protective of suicidal behavior, it also has a dark side in subjects with mental disorders.

AB - Abstract Background: Several studies have shown temperament variants in suicidality. Yet, to our knowledge, the association between temperaments and suicide attempts has not been studied on a nationally representative level nor systematically in subjects with no mental disorders. Also, although hyperthymic temperament is recognized as protective of most mental disorders, its role in the protection from self-harm remains inconclusive. Methods: The study is based on nationally representative data of all Lebanese adults. Mental disorders were assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, whereas the five affective temperaments were assessed using the TEMPS-A. Results: Anxious temperament is a solid and strong risk factor for suicide attempts in subjects with (OR: 10.1) and without (OR: 9.0) mental disorders. Depressive (OR: 4.3) and irritable (OR: 5.1) temperaments are risk factors for suicide attempt among subjects with mental disorders. Hyperthymic temperament plays a dual role in females with mental disorders: while the hyperthymic trait "having self-confidence" is strongly protective of suicide attempts, "liking to be the boss", "getting into heated arguments", and "the right and privilege to do as I please" are hyperthymic risk traits for suicide attempts reflecting the "dark side" of the hyperthymic temperament. Interestingly, these three hyperthymic risk traits - in the absence of "having self-confidence" - are a universal risk for suicide attempt in females with mental disorder. Limitations: Social desirability could have led to the under-reporting of suicide attempts and mental disorders. Conclusions: The anxious temperament plays a strong role in predicting suicide attempts in the community, in the presence and absence of diagnosable mental disorders. The irritable and the depressive temperaments are additional risks in subjects with mental disorders. The dual role of the hyperthymic temperament is quite interesting: while it is protective of suicidal behavior, it also has a dark side in subjects with mental disorders.

KW - Hyperthymic

KW - Suicide

KW - Temperament

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84931260989&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84931260989&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.jad.2015.05.047

DO - 10.1016/j.jad.2015.05.047

M3 - Article

VL - 184

SP - 123

EP - 128

JO - Journal of Affective Disorders

JF - Journal of Affective Disorders

SN - 0165-0327

M1 - 7483

ER -