Synthesis, structure and photocatalytic properties of Fe(III)-doped TiO2 prepared from TiCl3

Zoltán Ambrus, Nándor Balázs, Tünde Alapi, G. Wittmann, P. Sipos, A. Dombi, K. Mogyorósi

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Abstract

Iron(III)-doped titanium dioxide photocatalysts were prepared from aqueous titanium(III) chloride solution in the presence of dissolved FeCl3 (0-10.0 at.% relative to TiCl3) by co-precipitation method. The precipitate was completely oxidized in the aerated suspension, hydrothermally treated, washed and calcinated. The structure of the powders was characterized by thermoanalysis (TG-DTA), diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The light absorption of the iron-containing powders is red shifted relative to the bare sample. The particle size and anatase content were found to significantly decrease at iron contents ≥6.0 at.% which is accompanied with the increase of their specific surface area. XANES measurements showed that the local structure of iron systematically changes with the variation of the dopant concentrations: at higher Fe-contents, hematite- or goethite-like environments were observed, consistent with the formation of separate X-ray amorphous Fe(III)-containing phases. The local structure of iron gradually transformed with decreasing dopant concentrations, possibly due to substitution of Fe(III) in the titania (TiO2) crystal lattice. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) and chemical analysis was used to characterize the iron content of the samples in the bulk and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) in the surface layer of the particles. The photocatalytic performance of the prepared photocatalysts was compared with the activity of Aldrich anatase under UV-vis and VIS irradiation in two different photoreactors. Maximum photocatalytic performance was found at 3.0 at.% iron concentration for UV-vis and at 1.2 at.% for VIS irradiation. Doping with iron(III) ions increased the photodegradation rate of phenol by a factor of three for UV-vis irradiation and by a factor of two for VIS irradiation, relative to the bare photocatalyst.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)27-37
Number of pages11
JournalApplied Catalysis B: Environmental
Volume81
Issue number1-2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - May 30 2008

Fingerprint

Iron
iron
irradiation
Photocatalysts
Irradiation
Titanium dioxide
anatase
Doping (additives)
Powders
X-ray spectroscopy
titanium
Titanium
titanium trichloride
Energy dispersive X ray analysis
Hematite
Photodegradation
photodegradation
Coprecipitation
Phenol
goethite

Keywords

  • Anatase
  • Heterogeneous photocatalysis
  • Iron(III)-doped TiO
  • Photocatalytic activity
  • Titania
  • Titanium(III) chloride

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Catalysis
  • Process Chemistry and Technology
  • Environmental Chemistry

Cite this

Synthesis, structure and photocatalytic properties of Fe(III)-doped TiO2 prepared from TiCl3. / Ambrus, Zoltán; Balázs, Nándor; Alapi, Tünde; Wittmann, G.; Sipos, P.; Dombi, A.; Mogyorósi, K.

In: Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Vol. 81, No. 1-2, 30.05.2008, p. 27-37.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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AU - Balázs, Nándor

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AU - Wittmann, G.

AU - Sipos, P.

AU - Dombi, A.

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N2 - Iron(III)-doped titanium dioxide photocatalysts were prepared from aqueous titanium(III) chloride solution in the presence of dissolved FeCl3 (0-10.0 at.% relative to TiCl3) by co-precipitation method. The precipitate was completely oxidized in the aerated suspension, hydrothermally treated, washed and calcinated. The structure of the powders was characterized by thermoanalysis (TG-DTA), diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The light absorption of the iron-containing powders is red shifted relative to the bare sample. The particle size and anatase content were found to significantly decrease at iron contents ≥6.0 at.% which is accompanied with the increase of their specific surface area. XANES measurements showed that the local structure of iron systematically changes with the variation of the dopant concentrations: at higher Fe-contents, hematite- or goethite-like environments were observed, consistent with the formation of separate X-ray amorphous Fe(III)-containing phases. The local structure of iron gradually transformed with decreasing dopant concentrations, possibly due to substitution of Fe(III) in the titania (TiO2) crystal lattice. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) and chemical analysis was used to characterize the iron content of the samples in the bulk and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) in the surface layer of the particles. The photocatalytic performance of the prepared photocatalysts was compared with the activity of Aldrich anatase under UV-vis and VIS irradiation in two different photoreactors. Maximum photocatalytic performance was found at 3.0 at.% iron concentration for UV-vis and at 1.2 at.% for VIS irradiation. Doping with iron(III) ions increased the photodegradation rate of phenol by a factor of three for UV-vis irradiation and by a factor of two for VIS irradiation, relative to the bare photocatalyst.

AB - Iron(III)-doped titanium dioxide photocatalysts were prepared from aqueous titanium(III) chloride solution in the presence of dissolved FeCl3 (0-10.0 at.% relative to TiCl3) by co-precipitation method. The precipitate was completely oxidized in the aerated suspension, hydrothermally treated, washed and calcinated. The structure of the powders was characterized by thermoanalysis (TG-DTA), diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The light absorption of the iron-containing powders is red shifted relative to the bare sample. The particle size and anatase content were found to significantly decrease at iron contents ≥6.0 at.% which is accompanied with the increase of their specific surface area. XANES measurements showed that the local structure of iron systematically changes with the variation of the dopant concentrations: at higher Fe-contents, hematite- or goethite-like environments were observed, consistent with the formation of separate X-ray amorphous Fe(III)-containing phases. The local structure of iron gradually transformed with decreasing dopant concentrations, possibly due to substitution of Fe(III) in the titania (TiO2) crystal lattice. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) and chemical analysis was used to characterize the iron content of the samples in the bulk and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) in the surface layer of the particles. The photocatalytic performance of the prepared photocatalysts was compared with the activity of Aldrich anatase under UV-vis and VIS irradiation in two different photoreactors. Maximum photocatalytic performance was found at 3.0 at.% iron concentration for UV-vis and at 1.2 at.% for VIS irradiation. Doping with iron(III) ions increased the photodegradation rate of phenol by a factor of three for UV-vis irradiation and by a factor of two for VIS irradiation, relative to the bare photocatalyst.

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