Three new DEPMPO-based spin traps have been designed and synthesized for improved superoxide detection, each carrying a cyclodextrin (CD) moiety but with a different alkyl chain on the phosphorus atom or with a long spacer arm. EPR spectroscopy allowed us to estimate the half-life of the superoxide spin adducts which is close to the value previously reported for CD-DEPMPO (t1/2 ≈ 50-55 min under the conditions investigated). The spectra are typical of superoxide adducts (almost no features of the HO adduct that usually forms with time for other nitrone spin traps such as DMPO) and we show that at 250 μM, the new spin trap enables the reliable detection of superoxide by 1 scan at the position opposite to the corresponding spin trap without the CD moiety. The resistance of the spin adducts to a reduction process has been evaluated, and the superoxide spin adducts are sensitive to ascorbate and glutathione (GSH), but not to glutathione peroxidase/GSH, reflecting the exposed nature of the nitroxide moiety to the bulk solvent. To understand these results, 2D-ROESY NMR studies and molecular dynamics pointed to a shallow or surface self-inclusion of the nitrone spin traps and of nitroxide spin adducts presumably due to the high flexibility of the permethyl-β-CD rim.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
- Organic Chemistry