ATP and adenosine are well-known neuroactive compounds. Other nucleotides and nucleosides may also be involved in different brain functions. This paper reports on extracellular concentrations of nucleobases and nucleosides (uracil, hypoxanthine, xanthine, uridine, 2´-deoxycytidine, 2´-deoxyuridine, inosine, guanosine, thymidine, adenosine) in response to sustained depolarisation, using in vivo brain microdialysis technique in the rat thalamus. High-potassium solution, the glutamate agonist kainate, and the Na+/K+ ATPase blocker ouabain were applied in the perfusate of microdialysis probes and induced release of various purine and pyrimidine nucleosides. All three types of depolarisation increased the level of hypoxanthine, uridine, inosine, guanosine and adenosine. The levels of measured deoxynucleosides (2´-deoxycytidine, 2´-deoxyuridine and thymidine) decreased or did not change, depending on the type of depolarisation. Kainate-induced changes were TTX insensitive, and ouabain-induced changes for inosine, guanosine, 2´-deoxycytidine and 2´-deoxyuridine were TTX sensitive. In contrast, TTX application without depolarisation decreased the extracellular concentrations of hypoxanthine, uridine, inosine, guanosine and adenosine.Our data suggest that various nucleosides may be released from cells exposed to excessive activity and, thus, support several different lines of research concerning the regulatory roles of nucleosides.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience
- Cell Biology