Survey of the Occurrence and Human Infective Potential of Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. in Wastewater and Different Surface Water Sources of Western Romania

Kálmán Imre, Adriana Morar, Marius S. Ilie, Judit Plutzer, Mirela Imre, Tîrziu Emil, Mihai V. Herbei, Gheorghe Dǎrǎbuş

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

6 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

From the group of parasitic protozoa, Giardia and Cryptosporidium are the most common pathogens spread in surface water sources, representing a continuous threat to public health and water authorities. The aim of this survey was to assess the occurrence and human infective potential of these pathogens in treated wastewaters and different surface water sources. A total of 76 western Romanian water bodies in four counties (Arad, Bihor, Caraş-Severin and Timiş) were investigated, including the effluents of wastewater treatment plants (n = 11) and brooks (n = 19), irrigation channels (n = 8), lakes (n = 16), and ponds (n = 22). Water samples were collected through polyester microfiber filtration. Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts were isolated using immunomagnetic separation, according to the US EPA 1623 method, followed by their identification and counting by immunofluorescence (IF) microscopy. All samples were screened through PCR-based techniques targeting the gdh gene for Giardia spp. and the 18S rRNA gene for Cryptosporidium spp., followed by sequencing of the positive results. Cryptosporidium-positive samples were subtyped based on sequence analysis of the GP60 gene. Giardia spp. was found in all tested water types with a cumulative detection rate of 90.1% in wastewaters, 26.3% in brooks, 37.5% in irrigation channels, 31.2% in lakes, and 36.4% in ponds. Except for ponds, all monitored water bodies harbored the Giardia duodenalis AII subassemblage with human infective potential. In addition, the ruminant origin assemblage E was widely distributed, and the domestic/wild canid-specific assemblage D was also recorded in a pond. Three (27.3%) wastewater samples were Cryptosporidium positive, and the identified species was the zoonotic Cryptosporidium parvum, with IIaA15G2R1 (n = 2) and IIdA18G1 subtypes. The results highlight that this threat to the public health must be brought to the attention of epidemiologists, health officials, and water authorities.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)685-691
Number of pages7
JournalVector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Volume17
Issue number10
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2017

Keywords

  • Cryptosporidium
  • Giardia
  • Romania
  • surface waters
  • wastewater

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology
  • Infectious Diseases
  • Virology

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