Pathomechanisms leading to ocular surface diseases are difficult to influence, and conservative treatment efforts are inefficient in most cases. However, the development of microsurgical techniques, the clinical application of molecular biologic methods and the localisation and identification of the function of limbal stem cells made it possible to achieve visual improvement and quality of life in these cases. The authors review the methods of tissue harvesting, cell culturing, transplantation techniques and indications. They provide a detailed survey on the most recommended modern surgical procedures, especially focusing on amniotic membrane and limbal stem cell transplantation.
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