Superoxide (O2 .-) accumulation contributes to symptomless (type I) nonhost resistance of plants to biotrophic pathogens

András Künstler, Renáta Bacsó, Réka Albert, Balázs Barna, Zoltán Király, Yaser Mohamed Hafez, József Fodor, Ildikó Schwarczinger, Lóránt Király

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

5 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Nonhost resistance is the most common form of disease resistance exhibited by plants against most pathogenic microorganisms. Type I nonhost resistance is symptomless (i.e. no macroscopically visible cell/tissue death), implying an early halt of pathogen growth. The timing/speed of defences is much more rapid during type I nonhost resistance than during type II nonhost and host (“gene-for-gene”) resistance associated with a hypersensitive response (localized necrosis, HR). However, the mechanism(s) underlying symptomless (type I) nonhost resistance is not entirely understood. Here we assessed accumulation dynamics of the reactive oxygen species superoxide (O2 .-) during interactions of plants with a range of biotrophic and hemibiotrophic pathogens resulting in susceptibility, symptomless nonhost resistance or host resistance with HR. Our results show that the timing of macroscopically detectable superoxide accumulation (1–4 days after inoculation, DAI) is always associated with the speed of the defense response (symptomless nonhost resistance vs. host resistance with HR) in inoculated leaves. The relatively early (1 DAI) superoxide accumulation during symptomless nonhost resistance of barley to wheat powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici) is localized to mesophyll chloroplasts of inoculated leaves and coupled to enhanced NADPH oxidase (EC 1.6.3.1) activity and transient increases in expression of genes regulating superoxide levels and cell death (superoxide dismutase, HvSOD1 and BAX inhibitor-1, HvBI-1). Importantly, the partial suppression of symptomless nonhost resistance of barley to wheat powdery mildew by heat shock (49 °C, 45 s) and antioxidant (SOD and catalase) treatments points to a functional role of superoxide in symptomless (type I) nonhost resistance.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)115-125
Number of pages11
JournalPlant Physiology and Biochemistry
Volume128
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2018

Keywords

  • Antioxidants
  • Biotrophic pathogens
  • Heat shock
  • Hypersensitive response
  • NADPH oxidase
  • Superoxide
  • Symptomless (type I) nonhost resistance

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Genetics
  • Plant Science

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