Studying single-wall carbon nanotubes through encapsulation: From optical methods till magnetic resonance

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Abstract

Encapsulating fullerenes, magnetic fullerenes, 13C isotope enriched fullerenes, and organic solvents inside SWCNTs enables to yield unprecedented insight into their electronic, optical, and interfacial properties and to study SWCNT growth. In addition to customary methods of their studies such as e.g., optical absorption or Raman spectroscopy, these efforts enables to employ electron spin resonance (ESR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Encapsulated C 60 fullerenes are transformed to inner tubes by a high temperature annealing. The diameter distribution of the inner tubes follow that of the outer ones and their unique, low defect concentration makes them an ideal model system for high resolution and energy dependent Raman studies. The observation of Raman modes of individual inner-outer tube pairs allows to measure the inner-outer tube interaction strength that is also well described theoretically. Reversible closing and opening of SWCNT can be studied in a diameter selective manner by encapsulating C 60 and transforming it to an inner tube. The growth of inner tubes can be achieved from 13C enriched encapsulated organic solvents, which shows that the geometry of the fullerene does not play a particular role in the inner tube growth as it was originally thought. In addition, it opens new perspectives to explore the in-the-tube chemistry. Growth of inner tubes from 13C enriched fullerenes provides a unique isotope engineered heteronuclear system, where the outer tubes contain natural carbon and the inner walls are controllably 13C isotope enriched. The material enables to identify the vibrational modes of inner tubes which otherwise strongly overlap with the outer tube modes. The 13C NMR signal of the material has an unprecedented specificity for the small diameter SWCNTs. Temperature and field dependent 13C T 1 studies show a uniform metallic-like electronic state for all inner tubes rather than distributed metallic and isolating behavior. A low energy, 3 meV gap is observed that is tentatively assigned to a long sought Peierls transition in the small diameter SWCNTs. Encapsulating magnetic fullerenes, such as N@C 60 and C 59N opens the way for local probe ESR studies of the electronic properties of the SWCNTs.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1197-1220
Number of pages24
JournalJournal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Volume7
Issue number4-5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2007

Fingerprint

Fullerenes
Carbon Nanotubes
Magnetic resonance
Encapsulation
Carbon nanotubes
Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
Isotopes
Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy
Growth
Organic solvents
Paramagnetic resonance
Temperature
Raman Spectrum Analysis
Electronic states
Absorption spectroscopy
Electronic properties
Light absorption
Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy
Raman spectroscopy
Carbon

Keywords

  • Carbon nanotubes
  • Double-wall carbon nanotubes
  • Fullerene encapsulation
  • Isotope engineered nanotubes
  • Magnetic resonance spectroscopy
  • Raman spectroscopy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Materials Science (miscellaneous)
  • Engineering (miscellaneous)

Cite this

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title = "Studying single-wall carbon nanotubes through encapsulation: From optical methods till magnetic resonance",
abstract = "Encapsulating fullerenes, magnetic fullerenes, 13C isotope enriched fullerenes, and organic solvents inside SWCNTs enables to yield unprecedented insight into their electronic, optical, and interfacial properties and to study SWCNT growth. In addition to customary methods of their studies such as e.g., optical absorption or Raman spectroscopy, these efforts enables to employ electron spin resonance (ESR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Encapsulated C 60 fullerenes are transformed to inner tubes by a high temperature annealing. The diameter distribution of the inner tubes follow that of the outer ones and their unique, low defect concentration makes them an ideal model system for high resolution and energy dependent Raman studies. The observation of Raman modes of individual inner-outer tube pairs allows to measure the inner-outer tube interaction strength that is also well described theoretically. Reversible closing and opening of SWCNT can be studied in a diameter selective manner by encapsulating C 60 and transforming it to an inner tube. The growth of inner tubes can be achieved from 13C enriched encapsulated organic solvents, which shows that the geometry of the fullerene does not play a particular role in the inner tube growth as it was originally thought. In addition, it opens new perspectives to explore the in-the-tube chemistry. Growth of inner tubes from 13C enriched fullerenes provides a unique isotope engineered heteronuclear system, where the outer tubes contain natural carbon and the inner walls are controllably 13C isotope enriched. The material enables to identify the vibrational modes of inner tubes which otherwise strongly overlap with the outer tube modes. The 13C NMR signal of the material has an unprecedented specificity for the small diameter SWCNTs. Temperature and field dependent 13C T 1 studies show a uniform metallic-like electronic state for all inner tubes rather than distributed metallic and isolating behavior. A low energy, 3 meV gap is observed that is tentatively assigned to a long sought Peierls transition in the small diameter SWCNTs. Encapsulating magnetic fullerenes, such as N@C 60 and C 59N opens the way for local probe ESR studies of the electronic properties of the SWCNTs.",
keywords = "Carbon nanotubes, Double-wall carbon nanotubes, Fullerene encapsulation, Isotope engineered nanotubes, Magnetic resonance spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy",
author = "F. Simon",
year = "2007",
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T1 - Studying single-wall carbon nanotubes through encapsulation

T2 - From optical methods till magnetic resonance

AU - Simon, F.

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N2 - Encapsulating fullerenes, magnetic fullerenes, 13C isotope enriched fullerenes, and organic solvents inside SWCNTs enables to yield unprecedented insight into their electronic, optical, and interfacial properties and to study SWCNT growth. In addition to customary methods of their studies such as e.g., optical absorption or Raman spectroscopy, these efforts enables to employ electron spin resonance (ESR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Encapsulated C 60 fullerenes are transformed to inner tubes by a high temperature annealing. The diameter distribution of the inner tubes follow that of the outer ones and their unique, low defect concentration makes them an ideal model system for high resolution and energy dependent Raman studies. The observation of Raman modes of individual inner-outer tube pairs allows to measure the inner-outer tube interaction strength that is also well described theoretically. Reversible closing and opening of SWCNT can be studied in a diameter selective manner by encapsulating C 60 and transforming it to an inner tube. The growth of inner tubes can be achieved from 13C enriched encapsulated organic solvents, which shows that the geometry of the fullerene does not play a particular role in the inner tube growth as it was originally thought. In addition, it opens new perspectives to explore the in-the-tube chemistry. Growth of inner tubes from 13C enriched fullerenes provides a unique isotope engineered heteronuclear system, where the outer tubes contain natural carbon and the inner walls are controllably 13C isotope enriched. The material enables to identify the vibrational modes of inner tubes which otherwise strongly overlap with the outer tube modes. The 13C NMR signal of the material has an unprecedented specificity for the small diameter SWCNTs. Temperature and field dependent 13C T 1 studies show a uniform metallic-like electronic state for all inner tubes rather than distributed metallic and isolating behavior. A low energy, 3 meV gap is observed that is tentatively assigned to a long sought Peierls transition in the small diameter SWCNTs. Encapsulating magnetic fullerenes, such as N@C 60 and C 59N opens the way for local probe ESR studies of the electronic properties of the SWCNTs.

AB - Encapsulating fullerenes, magnetic fullerenes, 13C isotope enriched fullerenes, and organic solvents inside SWCNTs enables to yield unprecedented insight into their electronic, optical, and interfacial properties and to study SWCNT growth. In addition to customary methods of their studies such as e.g., optical absorption or Raman spectroscopy, these efforts enables to employ electron spin resonance (ESR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Encapsulated C 60 fullerenes are transformed to inner tubes by a high temperature annealing. The diameter distribution of the inner tubes follow that of the outer ones and their unique, low defect concentration makes them an ideal model system for high resolution and energy dependent Raman studies. The observation of Raman modes of individual inner-outer tube pairs allows to measure the inner-outer tube interaction strength that is also well described theoretically. Reversible closing and opening of SWCNT can be studied in a diameter selective manner by encapsulating C 60 and transforming it to an inner tube. The growth of inner tubes can be achieved from 13C enriched encapsulated organic solvents, which shows that the geometry of the fullerene does not play a particular role in the inner tube growth as it was originally thought. In addition, it opens new perspectives to explore the in-the-tube chemistry. Growth of inner tubes from 13C enriched fullerenes provides a unique isotope engineered heteronuclear system, where the outer tubes contain natural carbon and the inner walls are controllably 13C isotope enriched. The material enables to identify the vibrational modes of inner tubes which otherwise strongly overlap with the outer tube modes. The 13C NMR signal of the material has an unprecedented specificity for the small diameter SWCNTs. Temperature and field dependent 13C T 1 studies show a uniform metallic-like electronic state for all inner tubes rather than distributed metallic and isolating behavior. A low energy, 3 meV gap is observed that is tentatively assigned to a long sought Peierls transition in the small diameter SWCNTs. Encapsulating magnetic fullerenes, such as N@C 60 and C 59N opens the way for local probe ESR studies of the electronic properties of the SWCNTs.

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KW - Fullerene encapsulation

KW - Isotope engineered nanotubes

KW - Magnetic resonance spectroscopy

KW - Raman spectroscopy

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