Structure, thermal, and mechanical properties of DDM-hardened epoxy/benzoxazine hybrids

Effects of epoxy resin functionality and ETBN toughening

Sergiy Grishchuk, Liubov Sorochynska, Olof C. Vorster, J. Karger-Kocsis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

27 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Bifunctional, trifunctional, and tetrafunctional epoxy (EP) resins were hardened with stoichiometric amount of 4,4′-diaminodiphenyl methane in presence and absence of benzoxazine (BOX). The EP/BOX ratio of the hybrid systems was constant, viz. 50/50 wt %. For the bifunctional EP, the EP/BOX range covered the ratios 75/25 and 25/75 wt %, as well. Epoxy-terminated liquid nitrile rubber (ETBN) was incorporated in 10 wt % in the systems with trifunctional and tetrafunctional EP, and in 10, 15, and 20 wt % in the EP/BOX with bifunctional EP to improve their toughness. Information on the structure and morphology of the hybrid systems was received from differential scanning calorimetric, dynamic-mechanical thermal analysis, atomic force microscopic, and scanning electron microscopic studies. The flexural, fracture mechanical properties, thermal degradation, and fire resistance of the EP/BOX and EP/BOX/ETBN hybrids were determined. It was found that some homopolymerized BOX was built in the EP/BOX conetwork in form of nanoscale inclusions, whereas ETBN formed micron scaled droplets of sea-island structure. Incorporation of BOX improved the charring and fire resistance, enhanced the flexural modulus and strength, reduced the glass transition (Tg), the fracture toughness, and energy. Additional modification with ETBN decreased the charring, fire resistance, flexural modulus and strength, as well as Tg, however, improved the fracture toughness and especially the fracture energy. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 2013

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)5082-5093
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Applied Polymer Science
Volume127
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Mar 15 2013

Fingerprint

Benzoxazines
Epoxy Resins
Fire resistance
Toughening
Epoxy resins
Thermodynamic properties
Fracture energy
Hybrid systems
Mechanical properties
Fracture toughness
Scanning
Thermoanalysis
Toughness
Glass transition
Rubber
Methane
Pyrolysis
Electrons
Liquids
Nitriles

Keywords

  • crosslinking
  • flame retardance
  • properties and characterization
  • resins
  • thermosets

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Chemistry
  • Polymers and Plastics
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films
  • Chemistry(all)

Cite this

Structure, thermal, and mechanical properties of DDM-hardened epoxy/benzoxazine hybrids : Effects of epoxy resin functionality and ETBN toughening. / Grishchuk, Sergiy; Sorochynska, Liubov; Vorster, Olof C.; Karger-Kocsis, J.

In: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, Vol. 127, No. 6, 15.03.2013, p. 5082-5093.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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