Structure and thermal behaviour of dichlorobis(thiourea)cadmium(II), a single-source precursor for CdS thin films

Malle Krunks, J. Madarász, Lassi Hiltunen, Risto Mannonen, Enn Mellikov, Lauri Niinistö

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

61 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The title compound (1) crystallizes in the space group Pmn21 with a=13.110(3), b=5.813(1) and c=6.482(1) Å. Its crystal structure was redetermined from three-dimensional single-crystal data to a final R-value of 0.0221. The Cd2+ ion is tetrahedrally coordinated to two sulfur atoms from the tiourea ligand (Cd-S= 2.509 Å) and to two chloride ions at distances 2.545 and 2.518 Å. When heated in air or in an inert atmosphere 1 undergoes a complex degradation process which was studied in situ by simultaneous TG/DTA as well as by EGA-FTIR. The gaseous species evolved include NH3, HCl, H2NCN, HNCS and CS2, which upon oxidation yield also HCN, SO2, COS and CO2. In the solid residue, NH4CdCl3 and CdS were detected by X-ray diffraction. Elemental and XPS analyses also indicated the presence of Cl and N as well as some carbon residue. The results of the thermoanalytical study are not directly applicable to the spray pyrolysis process because of the different experimental conditions, but they nevertheless indicate that it is extremely difficult to prepare impurity-free CdS. The formation of HCN, not detected earlier, should also be taken into account when designing the process parameters and safety measures.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)294-301
Number of pages8
JournalActa Chemica Scandinavica
Volume51
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Mar 1997

Fingerprint

Thiourea
Thioureas
Cadmium
Ions
Thin films
Spray pyrolysis
Sulfur
Differential thermal analysis
Chlorides
Carbon
X ray photoelectron spectroscopy
Crystal structure
Ligands
Single crystals
Impurities
X ray diffraction
Degradation
Atoms
Oxidation
Air

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemical Engineering(all)

Cite this

Structure and thermal behaviour of dichlorobis(thiourea)cadmium(II), a single-source precursor for CdS thin films. / Krunks, Malle; Madarász, J.; Hiltunen, Lassi; Mannonen, Risto; Mellikov, Enn; Niinistö, Lauri.

In: Acta Chemica Scandinavica, Vol. 51, No. 3, 03.1997, p. 294-301.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Krunks, M, Madarász, J, Hiltunen, L, Mannonen, R, Mellikov, E & Niinistö, L 1997, 'Structure and thermal behaviour of dichlorobis(thiourea)cadmium(II), a single-source precursor for CdS thin films', Acta Chemica Scandinavica, vol. 51, no. 3, pp. 294-301.
Krunks, Malle ; Madarász, J. ; Hiltunen, Lassi ; Mannonen, Risto ; Mellikov, Enn ; Niinistö, Lauri. / Structure and thermal behaviour of dichlorobis(thiourea)cadmium(II), a single-source precursor for CdS thin films. In: Acta Chemica Scandinavica. 1997 ; Vol. 51, No. 3. pp. 294-301.
@article{f028b588ba5b4c6787416c0ede3a24d7,
title = "Structure and thermal behaviour of dichlorobis(thiourea)cadmium(II), a single-source precursor for CdS thin films",
abstract = "The title compound (1) crystallizes in the space group Pmn21 with a=13.110(3), b=5.813(1) and c=6.482(1) {\AA}. Its crystal structure was redetermined from three-dimensional single-crystal data to a final R-value of 0.0221. The Cd2+ ion is tetrahedrally coordinated to two sulfur atoms from the tiourea ligand (Cd-S= 2.509 {\AA}) and to two chloride ions at distances 2.545 and 2.518 {\AA}. When heated in air or in an inert atmosphere 1 undergoes a complex degradation process which was studied in situ by simultaneous TG/DTA as well as by EGA-FTIR. The gaseous species evolved include NH3, HCl, H2NCN, HNCS and CS2, which upon oxidation yield also HCN, SO2, COS and CO2. In the solid residue, NH4CdCl3 and CdS were detected by X-ray diffraction. Elemental and XPS analyses also indicated the presence of Cl and N as well as some carbon residue. The results of the thermoanalytical study are not directly applicable to the spray pyrolysis process because of the different experimental conditions, but they nevertheless indicate that it is extremely difficult to prepare impurity-free CdS. The formation of HCN, not detected earlier, should also be taken into account when designing the process parameters and safety measures.",
author = "Malle Krunks and J. Madar{\'a}sz and Lassi Hiltunen and Risto Mannonen and Enn Mellikov and Lauri Niinist{\"o}",
year = "1997",
month = "3",
language = "English",
volume = "51",
pages = "294--301",
journal = "Acta Chemica Scandinavica",
issn = "0904-213X",
publisher = "Royal Society of Chemistry",
number = "3",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Structure and thermal behaviour of dichlorobis(thiourea)cadmium(II), a single-source precursor for CdS thin films

AU - Krunks, Malle

AU - Madarász, J.

AU - Hiltunen, Lassi

AU - Mannonen, Risto

AU - Mellikov, Enn

AU - Niinistö, Lauri

PY - 1997/3

Y1 - 1997/3

N2 - The title compound (1) crystallizes in the space group Pmn21 with a=13.110(3), b=5.813(1) and c=6.482(1) Å. Its crystal structure was redetermined from three-dimensional single-crystal data to a final R-value of 0.0221. The Cd2+ ion is tetrahedrally coordinated to two sulfur atoms from the tiourea ligand (Cd-S= 2.509 Å) and to two chloride ions at distances 2.545 and 2.518 Å. When heated in air or in an inert atmosphere 1 undergoes a complex degradation process which was studied in situ by simultaneous TG/DTA as well as by EGA-FTIR. The gaseous species evolved include NH3, HCl, H2NCN, HNCS and CS2, which upon oxidation yield also HCN, SO2, COS and CO2. In the solid residue, NH4CdCl3 and CdS were detected by X-ray diffraction. Elemental and XPS analyses also indicated the presence of Cl and N as well as some carbon residue. The results of the thermoanalytical study are not directly applicable to the spray pyrolysis process because of the different experimental conditions, but they nevertheless indicate that it is extremely difficult to prepare impurity-free CdS. The formation of HCN, not detected earlier, should also be taken into account when designing the process parameters and safety measures.

AB - The title compound (1) crystallizes in the space group Pmn21 with a=13.110(3), b=5.813(1) and c=6.482(1) Å. Its crystal structure was redetermined from three-dimensional single-crystal data to a final R-value of 0.0221. The Cd2+ ion is tetrahedrally coordinated to two sulfur atoms from the tiourea ligand (Cd-S= 2.509 Å) and to two chloride ions at distances 2.545 and 2.518 Å. When heated in air or in an inert atmosphere 1 undergoes a complex degradation process which was studied in situ by simultaneous TG/DTA as well as by EGA-FTIR. The gaseous species evolved include NH3, HCl, H2NCN, HNCS and CS2, which upon oxidation yield also HCN, SO2, COS and CO2. In the solid residue, NH4CdCl3 and CdS were detected by X-ray diffraction. Elemental and XPS analyses also indicated the presence of Cl and N as well as some carbon residue. The results of the thermoanalytical study are not directly applicable to the spray pyrolysis process because of the different experimental conditions, but they nevertheless indicate that it is extremely difficult to prepare impurity-free CdS. The formation of HCN, not detected earlier, should also be taken into account when designing the process parameters and safety measures.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0000937403&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0000937403&partnerID=8YFLogxK

M3 - Article

VL - 51

SP - 294

EP - 301

JO - Acta Chemica Scandinavica

JF - Acta Chemica Scandinavica

SN - 0904-213X

IS - 3

ER -