This paper presents field observations and measurements from the Hawasina Window, Oman Mountains. An updated geological map is based partly on previous publications and four NEtrending cross-sections. Along each cross-section key structural features are described, illustrated and interpreted. Based on these (and other) observations several differences between our interpretation and the former published geological maps and cross sections were noted as follows. (1) Late Cretaceous original (Hamrat Duru; Haybi) nappes that formed during intraoceanic obduccion underwent out-of-sequence thrusting beneath the Semail thrust. The repetitions of the nappe complexes are out-of-sequence because: (a) repetition of original nappe packages; (b) the presence of Haybi-derived lenses along boundaries between two Hamrat Duru nappes; (c) the presence of sheared serpentinite in the same nappe boundaries. The Hamrat Duru and Haybi nappes are repeated three times. (2) The tectonic boundaries of the Hawasina Window are steep, normal- or strikeslip faults, unconformable to, and cutting the original nappe boundaries. A main strike-slip corridor at the southern edge of the Hawasina structure was mapped. The northern edge is a top-north thrust. (3) Ductile-brittle extension created mega-boudins of preserved nappe units and areas where complete nappe units are missing. Extension is present in Sumeini and Hamrat Duru units; therefore it is post-out-of-sequence thrusting. (4) Two main antiforms were recognised inside the Hawasina Window (Jabal Rais and its northward and southward continuations in Hamrat Duru units, and Jabais Mawq - Matid). Several folding phases were recognised and the two antiforms are the result of interference. A main, sub-horizontal axial plane, syn-regional cleavage folding is present in the whole Window. This folding gives top NE or N regional shear. (5) Structural dips of regional cleavage suggest a major NW-striking dome beneath the Hawasina Window. This dome would correspond to the upwarp of the Autochthon, similar to Al Jabal al-Akhdar. In the southern zone of this dome we observed several occurrences of small gypsum diapirs. The best outcrops of these features are in the Wadi ad Dil-Wadi Hawasina area, where the evaporite bodies rise from beneath the Hawasina nappes. We suggest that they originate from the underlying Arabian Platform, or they form the basal detachment of the Sumeini units. Our observations are fit into a proposed deformation scenario resulting from plate-tectonic events occurring at the Arabian Plate margin during Cretaceous - Tertiary time.
|Number of pages||40|
|Publication status||Published - Jul 16 2010|
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