Strategies for the development of vaccines conferring broad-spectrum protection

Gábor Nagy, L. Emődy, Tibor Pál

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

18 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Efficacious vaccination needs to confer protection against the vast majority of pathogens capable of causing a particular disease. Development of such vaccines is hindered by the great variability of microbes. Most pathogens have evolved variants that are able to express non-uniform surface structures. Naturally, evolutionary pressure has selected the most immunogenic antigens to be the most versatile. A combination of these multiform surface antigens forms the basis of classification of microbes into serotypes. Unfortunately, immune response in most cases is serotype-dependent, i.e. cross-protection among serotypes/serogroups of a given pathogen is limited. This review focuses on the strategies used for the engineering of broad-protective vaccine candidates, i.e., vaccines that induce a global, serotype-independent protection. The most plausible approach is to immunize with a multivalent vaccine containing different serotypes or purified serotype-determining antigens of a given pathogen. This arrangement is, however, efficient only against those microbes that have a limited number of serotypes, or few serotypes are responsible for the majority of the infections. Instead of using multivalent vaccine cocktails, cross-protective capacity of vaccine strains could be improved by making the conserved (i.e., shared by all variants) antigens more immunogenic. Elimination or down-regulation of the non-uniform antigens may increase immunogenicity of conserved minor antigens in vaccine candidates. Alternatively, shared antigens might be over-expressed in homologous or heterologous attenuated strains. Finally, purified conserved antigens could be used as subunit vaccines. In this paper, advantages and drawbacks of several such approaches will be reviewed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)379-395
Number of pages17
JournalInternational Journal of Medical Microbiology
Volume298
Issue number5-6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jul 1 2008

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Vaccines
Antigens
Cross Protection
Serogroup
Subunit Vaccines
Surface Antigens
Vaccination
Down-Regulation
Pressure
Infection

Keywords

  • Broad coverage
  • Cross-protection
  • Multivalent vaccines
  • Rational attenuation
  • Vaccination
  • Virulence regulation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology
  • Microbiology (medical)

Cite this

Strategies for the development of vaccines conferring broad-spectrum protection. / Nagy, Gábor; Emődy, L.; Pál, Tibor.

In: International Journal of Medical Microbiology, Vol. 298, No. 5-6, 01.07.2008, p. 379-395.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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