STM and AFM Observations of damage produced by Swift NE and KR ions in graphite

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Radiation damage of highly oriented pyrolitic graphite (HOPG) samples have been investigated following irradiation with 215 MeV Ne and 209 MeV Kr ions, available at U-400 cyclotron, Dubna. A freshly cleaved HOPG surface was irradiated perpendicularly to the sample surface (c plane). A low ion irradiation dose was used (1012 ions/cm2) in order to avoid damage overlap. Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) are useful methods allowing direct observation of surface defects. The observations were made after irradiation without any further sample preparation. The experimental results are compared to computer simulations (TRIM code) and primary knocked-on atomic spectrum calculations (LET code). Clear distinction can be made between surface features attributed to nuclear stopping effects and defects owing to electronic stopping mechanisms.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)65-70
Number of pages6
JournalRadiation Measurements
Issue number1-6
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1 1997



  • AFM
  • Graphite
  • Hillock
  • Hollow
  • Ion track
  • Irradiation defects
  • STM
  • Stopping power

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiation
  • Instrumentation

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