We investigated pathogenic mutations relevant in dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (LADH; gene: Dld) deficiency, a severe human disease, to elucidate how they alter reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and associated biophysical characteristics of LADH. Twelve known disease-causing mutants of human LADH have been expressed and purified to homogeneity from E. coli. Detailed biophysical and biochemical characterization of the mutants has been performed applying circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, nanospray mass spectrometry (MS), calibrated gel filtration and flavin adenine dinucleotide-content analysis. Functional analyses revealed that four of the pathogenic mutations significantly stimulated the ROS-generating activity of LADH and also increased its sensitivity to an acidic shift in pH. LADH activity was reduced by variable extents in the mutants exhibiting excessive ROS generation. It is remarkable that in the P453L mutant, enzyme activity was nearly completely lost with a ROS-forming activity becoming dominant, whereas the G194C mutation, common among Ashkenazi Jews, resulted in no alteration in LADH activity but a gain in the ROS-generating activity. There have been neither major conformational alterations nor monomerization of the functional homodimer of LADH associated with the higher ROS-generating capacity as measured by CD spectroscopy and size-exclusion chromatography combined with nano-spray MS, respectively. The excessive ROS generation of selected LADH mutants could be an important factor in the pathology and clinical presentation of human LADH deficiency and raises the possibility of an antioxidant therapy in the treatment of this condition.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology