The stillbirth rate, especially in Holstein heifers did not decrease but showed gradually increasing tendency all over the world during the last 20 years, therefore it is important to re-examine the causal factors to achieve a substantive decrease (Table). The aim of the present literature review is to discuss the causal factors of stillbirth by grouping them according to non-infectious and infectious origin. Among the causal factors of stillbirth of non-infectious origin dystocia, thyroid gland abnormality, mineral deficiency, congenital disease, hormonal imbalance in the peripartal period, other predisposing factors such as parity, gestation length, gender, metabolic background (ketosis, decreased number of neutrophyl granulocytes) are discussed. Among the causal factors of stillbirth of infectious origin Leptospira, Chlamydophila psittaci, Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus (BVDV) and Neospora caninum are mentioned. It is emphasised that the above mentioned pathogens, depending on the date of infection may cause mainly abortion. At the same time it would be very important after each stillbirth to unravel the causal factor(s), because in several cases the above discussed factors can be present cumulatively, or they may be absent.
|Number of pages||11|
|Journal||Magyar Allatorvosok Lapja|
|Publication status||Published - Oct 1 2010|
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