Stem cells of the adult cornea: From cytometric markers to therapeutic applications

Lili Takács, Enikö Tóth, A. Berta, G. Vereb

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

65 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The cornea is a major protective shield of the interior of the eye and represents two thirds of its refractive power. It is made up of three tissue layers that have different developmental origins: the outer, epithelial layer develops from the ectoderm overlying the lens vesicle, whereas the stroma and the endothelium have mesenchymal origin. In the adult organism, the outermost corneal epithelium is the most exposed to environmental damage, and its constant renewal is assured by the epithelial stem cells that reside in the limbus, the circular border of the cornea. Cell turnover in the stromal layer is very slow and the endothelial cells probably do not reproduce in the adult organism. However, recent experimental evidence indicates that stem cells may be found in these layers. Damage to any of the corneal layers leads to loss of transparency and low vision. Corneal limbal stem cell deficiency results in severe ocular surface disease and its treatment by transplantating ex vivo expanded limbal epithelial cells is becoming widely accepted today. Stromal and endothelial stem cells are potential tools of tissue engineering and regenerative therapies of corneal ulcers and endothelial cell loss. In the past few years, intensive research has focused on corneal stem cells aiming to improve the outcomes of the current corneal stem cell transplantation techniques. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge on corneal epithelial, stromal and endothelial stem cells. Special emphasis is placed on the molecular markers that may help to identify these cells, and the recently revealed mechanisms that could maintain their "sternness" or drive their differentiation. The techniques for isolating and culturing/expanding these cells are also described.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)54-66
Number of pages13
JournalCytometry Part A
Volume75
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2009

Fingerprint

Adult Stem Cells
Cornea
Stem Cells
Endothelial Cells
Corneal Endothelial Cell Loss
Therapeutics
Epithelial Cells
Corneal Ulcer
Low Vision
Corneal Epithelium
Ectoderm
Eye Diseases
Stem Cell Transplantation
Tissue Engineering
Lenses
Endothelium
Research

Keywords

  • ABCG2
  • Bmi-1
  • C/EBP(delta)
  • Cornea
  • Endothelial stem cells
  • Ex vivo expansion
  • Limbal epithelial stem cells
  • Mesenchymal stem cells
  • P63
  • Side population
  • Stem cell
  • Stem cell marker
  • Stem cell niche
  • Transplantation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cell Biology
  • Histology
  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine
  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Stem cells of the adult cornea : From cytometric markers to therapeutic applications. / Takács, Lili; Tóth, Enikö; Berta, A.; Vereb, G.

In: Cytometry Part A, Vol. 75, No. 1, 01.2009, p. 54-66.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{bd0ec284c6714da593bd22b9629534e5,
title = "Stem cells of the adult cornea: From cytometric markers to therapeutic applications",
abstract = "The cornea is a major protective shield of the interior of the eye and represents two thirds of its refractive power. It is made up of three tissue layers that have different developmental origins: the outer, epithelial layer develops from the ectoderm overlying the lens vesicle, whereas the stroma and the endothelium have mesenchymal origin. In the adult organism, the outermost corneal epithelium is the most exposed to environmental damage, and its constant renewal is assured by the epithelial stem cells that reside in the limbus, the circular border of the cornea. Cell turnover in the stromal layer is very slow and the endothelial cells probably do not reproduce in the adult organism. However, recent experimental evidence indicates that stem cells may be found in these layers. Damage to any of the corneal layers leads to loss of transparency and low vision. Corneal limbal stem cell deficiency results in severe ocular surface disease and its treatment by transplantating ex vivo expanded limbal epithelial cells is becoming widely accepted today. Stromal and endothelial stem cells are potential tools of tissue engineering and regenerative therapies of corneal ulcers and endothelial cell loss. In the past few years, intensive research has focused on corneal stem cells aiming to improve the outcomes of the current corneal stem cell transplantation techniques. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge on corneal epithelial, stromal and endothelial stem cells. Special emphasis is placed on the molecular markers that may help to identify these cells, and the recently revealed mechanisms that could maintain their {"}sternness{"} or drive their differentiation. The techniques for isolating and culturing/expanding these cells are also described.",
keywords = "ABCG2, Bmi-1, C/EBP(delta), Cornea, Endothelial stem cells, Ex vivo expansion, Limbal epithelial stem cells, Mesenchymal stem cells, P63, Side population, Stem cell, Stem cell marker, Stem cell niche, Transplantation",
author = "Lili Tak{\'a}cs and Enik{\"o} T{\'o}th and A. Berta and G. Vereb",
year = "2009",
month = "1",
doi = "10.1002/cyto.a.20671",
language = "English",
volume = "75",
pages = "54--66",
journal = "Cytometry. Part A : the journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology",
issn = "1552-4922",
publisher = "Wiley-Liss Inc.",
number = "1",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Stem cells of the adult cornea

T2 - From cytometric markers to therapeutic applications

AU - Takács, Lili

AU - Tóth, Enikö

AU - Berta, A.

AU - Vereb, G.

PY - 2009/1

Y1 - 2009/1

N2 - The cornea is a major protective shield of the interior of the eye and represents two thirds of its refractive power. It is made up of three tissue layers that have different developmental origins: the outer, epithelial layer develops from the ectoderm overlying the lens vesicle, whereas the stroma and the endothelium have mesenchymal origin. In the adult organism, the outermost corneal epithelium is the most exposed to environmental damage, and its constant renewal is assured by the epithelial stem cells that reside in the limbus, the circular border of the cornea. Cell turnover in the stromal layer is very slow and the endothelial cells probably do not reproduce in the adult organism. However, recent experimental evidence indicates that stem cells may be found in these layers. Damage to any of the corneal layers leads to loss of transparency and low vision. Corneal limbal stem cell deficiency results in severe ocular surface disease and its treatment by transplantating ex vivo expanded limbal epithelial cells is becoming widely accepted today. Stromal and endothelial stem cells are potential tools of tissue engineering and regenerative therapies of corneal ulcers and endothelial cell loss. In the past few years, intensive research has focused on corneal stem cells aiming to improve the outcomes of the current corneal stem cell transplantation techniques. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge on corneal epithelial, stromal and endothelial stem cells. Special emphasis is placed on the molecular markers that may help to identify these cells, and the recently revealed mechanisms that could maintain their "sternness" or drive their differentiation. The techniques for isolating and culturing/expanding these cells are also described.

AB - The cornea is a major protective shield of the interior of the eye and represents two thirds of its refractive power. It is made up of three tissue layers that have different developmental origins: the outer, epithelial layer develops from the ectoderm overlying the lens vesicle, whereas the stroma and the endothelium have mesenchymal origin. In the adult organism, the outermost corneal epithelium is the most exposed to environmental damage, and its constant renewal is assured by the epithelial stem cells that reside in the limbus, the circular border of the cornea. Cell turnover in the stromal layer is very slow and the endothelial cells probably do not reproduce in the adult organism. However, recent experimental evidence indicates that stem cells may be found in these layers. Damage to any of the corneal layers leads to loss of transparency and low vision. Corneal limbal stem cell deficiency results in severe ocular surface disease and its treatment by transplantating ex vivo expanded limbal epithelial cells is becoming widely accepted today. Stromal and endothelial stem cells are potential tools of tissue engineering and regenerative therapies of corneal ulcers and endothelial cell loss. In the past few years, intensive research has focused on corneal stem cells aiming to improve the outcomes of the current corneal stem cell transplantation techniques. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge on corneal epithelial, stromal and endothelial stem cells. Special emphasis is placed on the molecular markers that may help to identify these cells, and the recently revealed mechanisms that could maintain their "sternness" or drive their differentiation. The techniques for isolating and culturing/expanding these cells are also described.

KW - ABCG2

KW - Bmi-1

KW - C/EBP(delta)

KW - Cornea

KW - Endothelial stem cells

KW - Ex vivo expansion

KW - Limbal epithelial stem cells

KW - Mesenchymal stem cells

KW - P63

KW - Side population

KW - Stem cell

KW - Stem cell marker

KW - Stem cell niche

KW - Transplantation

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=59049098237&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=59049098237&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1002/cyto.a.20671

DO - 10.1002/cyto.a.20671

M3 - Article

C2 - 19051301

AN - SCOPUS:59049098237

VL - 75

SP - 54

EP - 66

JO - Cytometry. Part A : the journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology

JF - Cytometry. Part A : the journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology

SN - 1552-4922

IS - 1

ER -