Standardization of the TEMPS-A in the Greek general population

Konstantinos N. Fountoulakis, Melina Siamouli, Matina Magiria, Eleonora Pantoula, Katerina Moutou, Marina Kemeridou, Eirini Mavridou, Panagiotis Panagiotidis, Efimia Loli, Elena Batsiari, Antonio Preti, Leonardo Tondo, X. Gonda, Z. Ríhmer, Kareen Akiskal, Hagop Akiskal

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Background The current study evaluates the reliability and factor-structure replicability of the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego Autoquestionnaire (TEMPS-A) in its Greek Version. Methods The TEMPS-A was administered to a convenient sample of 734 subjects from the general Greek population (436 females; 59.4% and 298 males; 40.6%). Their mean age was 40.80±11.48 years (range 25-67 years). The analysis included the calculation of Chronbach's alpha, the calculation of the threshold to define dominant temperaments (+2 standard deviations or 95th percentile), confirmatory factor analysis and the calculation of Pearson correlation coefficients between the temperament scales scores. Analysis of Covariance with age as covariate and post-hoc t-test was used to search for differences in temperament scores between males and females. Also a table of percentile values corresponding to a raw score was created. Results Internal consistency was excellent for the various temperaments (0.72-0.88). The factor analysis confirmed the five factor solution as the best factor solution. All TEMPS items were included in the final version of the scale in the Greek language. Limitations The study sample included subjects from the general population, but it is a convenient and not representative sample. Although the authors tried to select them on the basis of being mentally healthy and without a psychiatric history, there is always a degree of uncertainty. There is also always the possibility some of them to manifest a mental disorder in the future, thus being currently in a premorbid state. Conclusion The Greek version of the TEMPS-A, has good internal consistency and factor structure similar to what was found in other translations. Overall our results are in accord with the literature and in line with theoretical considerations as well as with empirical evidence.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)19-29
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Affective Disorders
Volume158
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2014

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Temperament
Paris
Population
Statistical Factor Analysis
Mental Disorders
Uncertainty
Psychiatry
Language

Keywords

  • Greek translation
  • Temperament
  • TEMPS
  • Validation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Clinical Psychology
  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Fountoulakis, K. N., Siamouli, M., Magiria, M., Pantoula, E., Moutou, K., Kemeridou, M., ... Akiskal, H. (2014). Standardization of the TEMPS-A in the Greek general population. Journal of Affective Disorders, 158, 19-29. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2013.12.030

Standardization of the TEMPS-A in the Greek general population. / Fountoulakis, Konstantinos N.; Siamouli, Melina; Magiria, Matina; Pantoula, Eleonora; Moutou, Katerina; Kemeridou, Marina; Mavridou, Eirini; Panagiotidis, Panagiotis; Loli, Efimia; Batsiari, Elena; Preti, Antonio; Tondo, Leonardo; Gonda, X.; Ríhmer, Z.; Akiskal, Kareen; Akiskal, Hagop.

In: Journal of Affective Disorders, Vol. 158, 04.2014, p. 19-29.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Fountoulakis, KN, Siamouli, M, Magiria, M, Pantoula, E, Moutou, K, Kemeridou, M, Mavridou, E, Panagiotidis, P, Loli, E, Batsiari, E, Preti, A, Tondo, L, Gonda, X, Ríhmer, Z, Akiskal, K & Akiskal, H 2014, 'Standardization of the TEMPS-A in the Greek general population', Journal of Affective Disorders, vol. 158, pp. 19-29. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2013.12.030
Fountoulakis KN, Siamouli M, Magiria M, Pantoula E, Moutou K, Kemeridou M et al. Standardization of the TEMPS-A in the Greek general population. Journal of Affective Disorders. 2014 Apr;158:19-29. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2013.12.030
Fountoulakis, Konstantinos N. ; Siamouli, Melina ; Magiria, Matina ; Pantoula, Eleonora ; Moutou, Katerina ; Kemeridou, Marina ; Mavridou, Eirini ; Panagiotidis, Panagiotis ; Loli, Efimia ; Batsiari, Elena ; Preti, Antonio ; Tondo, Leonardo ; Gonda, X. ; Ríhmer, Z. ; Akiskal, Kareen ; Akiskal, Hagop. / Standardization of the TEMPS-A in the Greek general population. In: Journal of Affective Disorders. 2014 ; Vol. 158. pp. 19-29.
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N2 - Background The current study evaluates the reliability and factor-structure replicability of the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego Autoquestionnaire (TEMPS-A) in its Greek Version. Methods The TEMPS-A was administered to a convenient sample of 734 subjects from the general Greek population (436 females; 59.4% and 298 males; 40.6%). Their mean age was 40.80±11.48 years (range 25-67 years). The analysis included the calculation of Chronbach's alpha, the calculation of the threshold to define dominant temperaments (+2 standard deviations or 95th percentile), confirmatory factor analysis and the calculation of Pearson correlation coefficients between the temperament scales scores. Analysis of Covariance with age as covariate and post-hoc t-test was used to search for differences in temperament scores between males and females. Also a table of percentile values corresponding to a raw score was created. Results Internal consistency was excellent for the various temperaments (0.72-0.88). The factor analysis confirmed the five factor solution as the best factor solution. All TEMPS items were included in the final version of the scale in the Greek language. Limitations The study sample included subjects from the general population, but it is a convenient and not representative sample. Although the authors tried to select them on the basis of being mentally healthy and without a psychiatric history, there is always a degree of uncertainty. There is also always the possibility some of them to manifest a mental disorder in the future, thus being currently in a premorbid state. Conclusion The Greek version of the TEMPS-A, has good internal consistency and factor structure similar to what was found in other translations. Overall our results are in accord with the literature and in line with theoretical considerations as well as with empirical evidence.

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