Processes of carbonate formation have been related to C and O isotopic compositions in the Mesozoic alkali basalt (Mecsek Mts.) and lamprophyre (Transdanubian Range) suites of Hungary. In the studied magmatic rocks, carbonates are present as ocelli, amygdales, xenoliths, veins and groundmass carbonate. C and O isotope studies of these types of carbonate have yielded information on the origin of the carbonates and indicated the following processes of formation that determined the δ13C and δ18O values of the carbonates:(1) Crystallization of magmatic carbonate. Textural characteristics and δ13C values suggest formation of magmatic carbonate in alkali basalt and lamprophyre dikes, whereas the δ18O compositions of these carbonates indicate low temperature oxygen isotope exchange with magmatic fluids.(2) Assimilation of sedimentary carbonate by silicate magmas. Even completely recrystallized amygdales and ocelli of basalts and lamprophyres have preserved their sedimentary δ13C values. In contrast, variations in the extent of mobilization and isotope exchange with magmatic fluids are reflected in differences in the ranges of the δ18O values of amygdales, ocelli and veins, and can be attributed to different amounts of fluids involved in the magmatic events.(3) Low temperature alteration of magmatic rocks caused only 18O-enrichment in the carbonate amygdales of basalts and the groundmass carbonates of lamprophyres, indicating that no externally-derived CO2 was present in the alteration fluids.(4) Degassing of magma and magmatic fluid. Correlations between δ13C and δ18O data, magma crystallization depths and amygdale sizes in the alkali basalts suggest that CO2 degassing has been responsible for the negative δ13C and positive δ18O shifts observed. A similar trend was found in the lamprophyres, but the extent of the δ18O shift indicates that in these rocks H2O degassing also played an important role.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Geochemistry and Petrology