Large rainfall within a relatively short time (a few hours or days) may lead to severe environmental consequences, including floods and landslides. In 2010 numerous precipitation-induced events were reported from Central and Eastern Europe. In order to objectively assess regional precipitation in this particular year, gridded data sets compiled from long-term measurements starting in 1951 are analyzed in this chapter with special focus on the period from May to September 2010. Furthermore, Central/Eastern European extreme values are compared to world records from different geographical regions. In addition to the detected precipitation, projected regional trends for the 21st century are also discussed including precipitation-related climate indices (e.g., number of wet days: when daily precipitation exceeds 1 mm; number of very wet days: when daily precipitation exceeds 20 mm). For this purpose, precipitation outputs from 11 regional climate model simulations are analyzed, taking into account the widely used intermediate global emission scenario (A1B), where the global concentration of carbon dioxide is estimated at 1.9 and 2.6 times the preindustrial atmospheric level by 2050 and 2100, respectively.