Spectral tuning by selective chromophore uptake in rods and cones of eight populations of nine-spined stickleback (Pungitius pungitius)

Pia Saarinen, Johan Pahlberg, G. Herczeg, Martta Viljanen, Marika Karjalainen, Takahito Shikano, Juha Merilä, Kristian Donner

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

13 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The visual pigments of rods and cones were studied in eight Fennoscandian populations of nine-spined stickleback (Pungitius pungitius). The wavelength of maximum absorbance of the rod pigment (γ.max) varied between populations from 504 to 530?nm. Gene sequencing showed that the rod opsins of all populations were identical in amino acid composition, implying that the differences were due to varying proportions of chromophores A1 and A2. Four spectral classes of cones were found (two Scones, M-cones and L-cones), correlating with the four classes of vertebrate cone pigments. For quantitative estimation of chromophore proportions, we considered mainly rods and M-cones. In four populations, spectra of both photoreceptor types indicated A2 dominance (population mean γ.max=525-530?nm for rods and 535-544?nm for M-cones). In the four remaining populations, however, rod spectra (mean γ.max=504-511?nm) indicated strong A1 dominance, whereas M-cone spectra (mean γ.max=519-534?nm) suggested substantial fractions of A2. Quantitative analysis of spectra by three methods confirmed that rods and cones in these populations use significantly different chromophore proportions. The outcome is a shift of M-cone spectra towards longer wavelengths and a better match to the photic environment (light spectra peaking >560?nm in all the habitats) than would result from the chromophore proportions of the rods. Chromophore content was also observed to vary partly independently in M-and L-cones with potential consequences for colour discrimination. This is the first demonstration that selective processing of chromophore in rods and cones, and in different cone types, may be ecologically relevant.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2760-2773
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Experimental Biology
Volume215
Issue number16
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2012

Fingerprint

Pungitius pungitius
Smegmamorpha
rods (retina)
Vertebrate Photoreceptor Cells
cones (retina)
Gasterosteidae
uptake mechanisms
Population
pigment
varespladib methyl
Rod Opsins
wavelength
pigments
Retinal Pigments
absorbance
quantitative analysis
vertebrate
wavelengths
amino acid
Ecosystem

Keywords

  • Photoreceptor
  • Porphyropsin
  • Rhodopsin
  • Visual ecology

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Animal Science and Zoology
  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
  • Molecular Biology
  • Physiology
  • Insect Science
  • Aquatic Science

Cite this

Spectral tuning by selective chromophore uptake in rods and cones of eight populations of nine-spined stickleback (Pungitius pungitius). / Saarinen, Pia; Pahlberg, Johan; Herczeg, G.; Viljanen, Martta; Karjalainen, Marika; Shikano, Takahito; Merilä, Juha; Donner, Kristian.

In: Journal of Experimental Biology, Vol. 215, No. 16, 08.2012, p. 2760-2773.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Saarinen, Pia ; Pahlberg, Johan ; Herczeg, G. ; Viljanen, Martta ; Karjalainen, Marika ; Shikano, Takahito ; Merilä, Juha ; Donner, Kristian. / Spectral tuning by selective chromophore uptake in rods and cones of eight populations of nine-spined stickleback (Pungitius pungitius). In: Journal of Experimental Biology. 2012 ; Vol. 215, No. 16. pp. 2760-2773.
@article{43400bb533424153a107905b0ef80e50,
title = "Spectral tuning by selective chromophore uptake in rods and cones of eight populations of nine-spined stickleback (Pungitius pungitius)",
abstract = "The visual pigments of rods and cones were studied in eight Fennoscandian populations of nine-spined stickleback (Pungitius pungitius). The wavelength of maximum absorbance of the rod pigment (γ.max) varied between populations from 504 to 530?nm. Gene sequencing showed that the rod opsins of all populations were identical in amino acid composition, implying that the differences were due to varying proportions of chromophores A1 and A2. Four spectral classes of cones were found (two Scones, M-cones and L-cones), correlating with the four classes of vertebrate cone pigments. For quantitative estimation of chromophore proportions, we considered mainly rods and M-cones. In four populations, spectra of both photoreceptor types indicated A2 dominance (population mean γ.max=525-530?nm for rods and 535-544?nm for M-cones). In the four remaining populations, however, rod spectra (mean γ.max=504-511?nm) indicated strong A1 dominance, whereas M-cone spectra (mean γ.max=519-534?nm) suggested substantial fractions of A2. Quantitative analysis of spectra by three methods confirmed that rods and cones in these populations use significantly different chromophore proportions. The outcome is a shift of M-cone spectra towards longer wavelengths and a better match to the photic environment (light spectra peaking >560?nm in all the habitats) than would result from the chromophore proportions of the rods. Chromophore content was also observed to vary partly independently in M-and L-cones with potential consequences for colour discrimination. This is the first demonstration that selective processing of chromophore in rods and cones, and in different cone types, may be ecologically relevant.",
keywords = "Photoreceptor, Porphyropsin, Rhodopsin, Visual ecology",
author = "Pia Saarinen and Johan Pahlberg and G. Herczeg and Martta Viljanen and Marika Karjalainen and Takahito Shikano and Juha Meril{\"a} and Kristian Donner",
year = "2012",
month = "8",
doi = "10.1242/jeb.068122",
language = "English",
volume = "215",
pages = "2760--2773",
journal = "Journal of Experimental Biology",
issn = "0022-0949",
publisher = "Company of Biologists Ltd",
number = "16",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Spectral tuning by selective chromophore uptake in rods and cones of eight populations of nine-spined stickleback (Pungitius pungitius)

AU - Saarinen, Pia

AU - Pahlberg, Johan

AU - Herczeg, G.

AU - Viljanen, Martta

AU - Karjalainen, Marika

AU - Shikano, Takahito

AU - Merilä, Juha

AU - Donner, Kristian

PY - 2012/8

Y1 - 2012/8

N2 - The visual pigments of rods and cones were studied in eight Fennoscandian populations of nine-spined stickleback (Pungitius pungitius). The wavelength of maximum absorbance of the rod pigment (γ.max) varied between populations from 504 to 530?nm. Gene sequencing showed that the rod opsins of all populations were identical in amino acid composition, implying that the differences were due to varying proportions of chromophores A1 and A2. Four spectral classes of cones were found (two Scones, M-cones and L-cones), correlating with the four classes of vertebrate cone pigments. For quantitative estimation of chromophore proportions, we considered mainly rods and M-cones. In four populations, spectra of both photoreceptor types indicated A2 dominance (population mean γ.max=525-530?nm for rods and 535-544?nm for M-cones). In the four remaining populations, however, rod spectra (mean γ.max=504-511?nm) indicated strong A1 dominance, whereas M-cone spectra (mean γ.max=519-534?nm) suggested substantial fractions of A2. Quantitative analysis of spectra by three methods confirmed that rods and cones in these populations use significantly different chromophore proportions. The outcome is a shift of M-cone spectra towards longer wavelengths and a better match to the photic environment (light spectra peaking >560?nm in all the habitats) than would result from the chromophore proportions of the rods. Chromophore content was also observed to vary partly independently in M-and L-cones with potential consequences for colour discrimination. This is the first demonstration that selective processing of chromophore in rods and cones, and in different cone types, may be ecologically relevant.

AB - The visual pigments of rods and cones were studied in eight Fennoscandian populations of nine-spined stickleback (Pungitius pungitius). The wavelength of maximum absorbance of the rod pigment (γ.max) varied between populations from 504 to 530?nm. Gene sequencing showed that the rod opsins of all populations were identical in amino acid composition, implying that the differences were due to varying proportions of chromophores A1 and A2. Four spectral classes of cones were found (two Scones, M-cones and L-cones), correlating with the four classes of vertebrate cone pigments. For quantitative estimation of chromophore proportions, we considered mainly rods and M-cones. In four populations, spectra of both photoreceptor types indicated A2 dominance (population mean γ.max=525-530?nm for rods and 535-544?nm for M-cones). In the four remaining populations, however, rod spectra (mean γ.max=504-511?nm) indicated strong A1 dominance, whereas M-cone spectra (mean γ.max=519-534?nm) suggested substantial fractions of A2. Quantitative analysis of spectra by three methods confirmed that rods and cones in these populations use significantly different chromophore proportions. The outcome is a shift of M-cone spectra towards longer wavelengths and a better match to the photic environment (light spectra peaking >560?nm in all the habitats) than would result from the chromophore proportions of the rods. Chromophore content was also observed to vary partly independently in M-and L-cones with potential consequences for colour discrimination. This is the first demonstration that selective processing of chromophore in rods and cones, and in different cone types, may be ecologically relevant.

KW - Photoreceptor

KW - Porphyropsin

KW - Rhodopsin

KW - Visual ecology

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84864350906&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84864350906&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1242/jeb.068122

DO - 10.1242/jeb.068122

M3 - Article

VL - 215

SP - 2760

EP - 2773

JO - Journal of Experimental Biology

JF - Journal of Experimental Biology

SN - 0022-0949

IS - 16

ER -