Eosinophilic colitis (EC) is a common cause of haematochezia in infants and young children. The exact pathomechanism is not understood, and the diagnosis is challenging. The role of microRNAs as key class of regulators of mRNA expression and translation in patients with EC has not been explored. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to explore the miRNA profile in EC with respect to eosinophilic inflammation. Patients enrolled in the study (n = 10) had persistent rectal bleeding, and did not respond to elimination dietary treatment. High-throughput microRNA sequencing was carried out on colonic biopsy specimens of children with EC (EC: n = 4) and controls (C: n = 4) as a preliminary screening of the miRNA profile. Based on the next-generation sequencing (NGS) results and literature data, a potentially relevant panel of miRNAs were selected for further measurements by real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR (EC: n = 14, C: n = 10). Validation by RT-PCR resulted in significantly altered expression of miR-21, -31, -99b, -125a, -146a, -184, -221, -223, and -559 compared to controls (p ≤ 0.05). Elevation in miR-21, -99b, -146a, -221, and -223 showed statistically significant correlation to the extent of tissue eosinophilia. Based on our results, we conclude that the dysregulated miRNAs have a potential role in the regulation of apoptosis by targeting Protein kinase B/Mechanistic target of rapamycin (AKT/mTOR)-related pathways in inflammation by modulating Nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB)-related signalling and eosinophil cell recruitment and activation, mainly by regulating the expression of the chemoattractant eotaxin and the adhesion molecule CD44. Our results could serve as a basis for further extended research exploring the pathomechanism of EC.
- Eosinophilic colitis
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology
- Computer Science Applications
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
- Organic Chemistry
- Inorganic Chemistry