Spatial clustering of Diabrotica virgifera virgifera and Agriotes ustulatus in small-scale maize fields without topographic relief drift

S. Toepfer, Michael M. Ellsbury, René Eschen, Ulrich Kuhlmann

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

33 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The soil-living larvae of Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) and Agriotes ustulatus Schaller (Coleoptera: Elateridae) can cause economic damage to maize roots, Zea mays L. (Poaceae). This study investigated the spatial clustering of both pests in four small-scale maize fields in southern Hungary, where clustering had been observed but not expected due to the lack of topographic relief drifts and soil structuring. Between 2000 and 2002, numbers of D. v. virgifera larvae and adults and of A. ustulatus larvae were determined at four randomly chosen georeferenced maize plants in each of 24 plots per field. Soil moisture, soil bulk density, and vegetational characteristics were assessed. Moran's I test for spatial autocorrelations, semivariogram analyses, and interpolated mapping revealed that D. v. virgifera larvae and adults were spatially clustered in 67 and 50% of cases, respectively. Larvae of A. ustulatus were clustered in 75% of cases. Diabrotica virgifera virgifera larval distributions were mainly determined by increasing weed density (negative correlation), in particular with high densities of Cirsium arvense (L.) (Asteraceae), as well as by increasing soil moisture (negative correlation). Adult distributions of D. v. virgifera were mainly determined by the density distribution of flowering maize. They were moreover correlated with larval distribution and with the adult distribution of the previous year. The density distributions of male adults differed from those of females. Female density was additionally correlated with higher soil moisture and Poaceae density, e.g., with Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers. No relation was found between the larvae of A. ustulatus and D. v. virgifera. Agriotes ustulatus larval distributions were mainly determined by vegetational cover (correlation with less cover). Conclusively, male and female D. v. virgifera adults, larvae of D. v. virgifera, and larvae of A. ustulatus will display different spatial clustering even within ostensibly homogeneous habitats of flat small-scale maize fields.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)61-75
Number of pages15
JournalEntomologia Experimentalis et Applicata
Volume124
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2007

Fingerprint

Agriotes
Diabrotica virgifera virgifera
relief
maize
larva
corn
larvae
soil moisture
soil water
Poaceae
Coleoptera
Sorghum halepense
Cirsium arvense
Elateridae
soil
sorghum
distribution
autocorrelation
Chrysomelidae
Hungary

Keywords

  • Chrysomelidae
  • Coleoptera
  • Elateridae
  • Soil
  • Variograms
  • Vegetation
  • Western click beetle
  • Western corn rootworm

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Insect Science

Cite this

Spatial clustering of Diabrotica virgifera virgifera and Agriotes ustulatus in small-scale maize fields without topographic relief drift. / Toepfer, S.; Ellsbury, Michael M.; Eschen, René; Kuhlmann, Ulrich.

In: Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, Vol. 124, No. 1, 07.2007, p. 61-75.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "The soil-living larvae of Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) and Agriotes ustulatus Schaller (Coleoptera: Elateridae) can cause economic damage to maize roots, Zea mays L. (Poaceae). This study investigated the spatial clustering of both pests in four small-scale maize fields in southern Hungary, where clustering had been observed but not expected due to the lack of topographic relief drifts and soil structuring. Between 2000 and 2002, numbers of D. v. virgifera larvae and adults and of A. ustulatus larvae were determined at four randomly chosen georeferenced maize plants in each of 24 plots per field. Soil moisture, soil bulk density, and vegetational characteristics were assessed. Moran's I test for spatial autocorrelations, semivariogram analyses, and interpolated mapping revealed that D. v. virgifera larvae and adults were spatially clustered in 67 and 50{\%} of cases, respectively. Larvae of A. ustulatus were clustered in 75{\%} of cases. Diabrotica virgifera virgifera larval distributions were mainly determined by increasing weed density (negative correlation), in particular with high densities of Cirsium arvense (L.) (Asteraceae), as well as by increasing soil moisture (negative correlation). Adult distributions of D. v. virgifera were mainly determined by the density distribution of flowering maize. They were moreover correlated with larval distribution and with the adult distribution of the previous year. The density distributions of male adults differed from those of females. Female density was additionally correlated with higher soil moisture and Poaceae density, e.g., with Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers. No relation was found between the larvae of A. ustulatus and D. v. virgifera. Agriotes ustulatus larval distributions were mainly determined by vegetational cover (correlation with less cover). Conclusively, male and female D. v. virgifera adults, larvae of D. v. virgifera, and larvae of A. ustulatus will display different spatial clustering even within ostensibly homogeneous habitats of flat small-scale maize fields.",
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AB - The soil-living larvae of Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) and Agriotes ustulatus Schaller (Coleoptera: Elateridae) can cause economic damage to maize roots, Zea mays L. (Poaceae). This study investigated the spatial clustering of both pests in four small-scale maize fields in southern Hungary, where clustering had been observed but not expected due to the lack of topographic relief drifts and soil structuring. Between 2000 and 2002, numbers of D. v. virgifera larvae and adults and of A. ustulatus larvae were determined at four randomly chosen georeferenced maize plants in each of 24 plots per field. Soil moisture, soil bulk density, and vegetational characteristics were assessed. Moran's I test for spatial autocorrelations, semivariogram analyses, and interpolated mapping revealed that D. v. virgifera larvae and adults were spatially clustered in 67 and 50% of cases, respectively. Larvae of A. ustulatus were clustered in 75% of cases. Diabrotica virgifera virgifera larval distributions were mainly determined by increasing weed density (negative correlation), in particular with high densities of Cirsium arvense (L.) (Asteraceae), as well as by increasing soil moisture (negative correlation). Adult distributions of D. v. virgifera were mainly determined by the density distribution of flowering maize. They were moreover correlated with larval distribution and with the adult distribution of the previous year. The density distributions of male adults differed from those of females. Female density was additionally correlated with higher soil moisture and Poaceae density, e.g., with Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers. No relation was found between the larvae of A. ustulatus and D. v. virgifera. Agriotes ustulatus larval distributions were mainly determined by vegetational cover (correlation with less cover). Conclusively, male and female D. v. virgifera adults, larvae of D. v. virgifera, and larvae of A. ustulatus will display different spatial clustering even within ostensibly homogeneous habitats of flat small-scale maize fields.

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