Mono- and dialkylated derivatives of 1-amino-5-isocyanonaphthalene (ICAN) were studied as new members of a multifunctional, easy-to-prepare fluorophore family, which showed excellent solvatochromic properties. The monoallyl derivative and the starting ICAN exhibited strong fluorescence quenching in the presence of small amounts of pyridine. The formation of a hydrogen-bonded ground-state pyridine complex was detected; however, analysis of quantum chemical calculations suggested the presence of an additional p-stacked pyridine complex. The Stern Volmer plot of the quenching process exhibited a downward curvature and after reaching a minimum the fluorescence intensity increased back to a significant level at high pyridine concentrations. Significant fluorescence was observed even in pure pyridine. A new mechanism and a simple mathematical equation were derived to explain the downward curvature and the remaining fluorescence by the formation of a fluorescent p-stacked complex.
- Density functional calculations
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry