Solid-state polymer membranes for simple, sensitive, and low-cost monitoring of mercury in water

Nikolaos Kallithrakas-Kontos, Spyros Foteinis, Eleftheria M. Vazgiouraki, Andreas G. Karydas, J. Osán, Efthalia Chatzisymeon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Solid-state Hg(II) selective membranes were produced and assessed by means of X-ray absorption near edge structure in the total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF-XANES) setup and by the energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) technique. Membranes were functionalized using four promising ligands for mercury complexation, i.e.: i) 4-(2-Pyridylazo) resorcinol (PAR), ii) thiourea, iii) calconcarboxylic acid (CCS), and iv) dithizone. A simple analytical procedure was followed, using miniscule reagent quantities, thus suggesting the process is also cost-effective. TXRF-XANES revealed that mercury complexes with the ligands, and is not simply adsorbed onto the PVC matrix, while the complexation was found to not be affected by the matrix existence. Mercury exhibited an increased oxidation grade and was covalently bound to the ligand functional groups, via a strong chemical bond. EDXRF revealed that the solid-state membranes can be used for mercury speciation and trace analysis from environmentally relevant matrices, such as tap water. The membranes could be a promising alternative to polymer inclusion membranes (PIMs), due to their simple configuration and high Hg (II) selectivity in aqueous media, but more research is needed. PAR appears to be the most promising ligand, followed by dithizone and thiourea. CCS had a minuscule preconcentration efficiency since it was preferably bound with Cu in tap water, indicating limited usefulness for mercury preconcentration. However, results suggest that, depending on the ligand, the solid-state membranes could be also possibly used for multi-elemental heavy metals analysis in water.

Original languageEnglish
Article number134099
JournalScience of the Total Environment
Volume697
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Dec 20 2019

Fingerprint

X ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy
XANES spectroscopy
Thiourea
Thioureas
X ray absorption
Cost effectiveness
Heavy Metals
Synchrotron radiation
Mercury
Polyvinyl Chloride
Polyvinyl chlorides
ligand
Heavy metals
Energy dispersive spectroscopy
Polymers
fluorescence
polymer
Fluorescence
Ligands
heavy metal

Keywords

  • Divalent mercury
  • Elettra Sinchrotron Trieste (EST)
  • Heavy metal pollution
  • Mercury complexation
  • Synchrotron radiation-induced XANES
  • The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Waste Management and Disposal
  • Pollution

Cite this

Solid-state polymer membranes for simple, sensitive, and low-cost monitoring of mercury in water. / Kallithrakas-Kontos, Nikolaos; Foteinis, Spyros; Vazgiouraki, Eleftheria M.; Karydas, Andreas G.; Osán, J.; Chatzisymeon, Efthalia.

In: Science of the Total Environment, Vol. 697, 134099, 20.12.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Kallithrakas-Kontos, Nikolaos ; Foteinis, Spyros ; Vazgiouraki, Eleftheria M. ; Karydas, Andreas G. ; Osán, J. ; Chatzisymeon, Efthalia. / Solid-state polymer membranes for simple, sensitive, and low-cost monitoring of mercury in water. In: Science of the Total Environment. 2019 ; Vol. 697.
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