Introduction: Considerable depressive symptoms follow stroke in about one third of patients. Initial depressive symptoms may wane after the acute phase of stroke, but persisting depressive symptoms adversely affect rehabilitation and quality of life. We set forth to evaluate predictors of depressive symptoms with a focus on socioeconomic factors. Methods: We evaluated clinical features and socioeconomic characteristics in 233 consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke or TIA. Depressive symptoms could be evaluated in 168 subjects in the acute phase with a repeated testing after a mean of 14.7 months via telephone interview in 116 patients. Survival status, scores on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and disability (modified Rankin scale, mRS) were recorded. Results: In the acute phase, employment status (p = 0.037) and level of education (p = 0.048) whereas one year later dependency (mRS≥3, p = 0.002) and income (p = 0.012) were the significant predictors of the severity of depressive symptoms. A change from independent (mRS≤2) to dependent living predicted worsening depressive symptoms (p = 0.008), whereas improving to functional independence from an initially dependent condition was associated with diminishing depressive symptoms (p = 0.077 for CES-D and p = 0.044 for BDI) in the first year after an acute ischemic cerebrovascular event. Conclusions: Predictors of the severity of depressive symptoms differed in the acute phase and at follow-up. In addition to disability, education and employment status in the acute phase and income in the late phase predict the severity of depressive symptoms after ischemic stroke or TIA.
|Journal||Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases|
|Publication status||Published - Nov 2020|
- Employment Status
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Neurology
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine