SN 2006oz: Rise of a super-luminous supernova observed by the SDSS-II SN Survey

G. Leloudas, E. Chatzopoulos, B. Dilday, J. Gorosabel, J. Vinkó, A. Gallazzi, J. C. Wheeler, B. Bassett, J. A. Fischer, J. A. Frieman, J. P U Fynbo, A. Goobar, M. Jelínek, D. Malesani, R. C. Nichol, J. Nordin, L. Östman, M. Sako, D. P. Schneider, M. SmithJ. Sollerman, M. D. Stritzinger, C. C. Thöne, A. De Ugarte Postigo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

81 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Context. A new class of super-luminous transients has recently been identified. These objects reach absolute luminosities of M u <-21, lack hydrogen in their spectra, and are exclusively discovered by non-targeted surveys because they are associated with very faint galaxies. Aims. We aim to contribute to a better understanding of these objects by studying SN 2006oz, a newly-recognized member of this class. Methods. We present multi-color light curves of SN 2006oz from the SDSS-II SN Survey that cover its rise time, as well as an optical spectrum that shows that the explosion occurred at z ∼ 0.376. We fitted black-body functions to estimate the temperature and radius evolution of the photosphere and used the parametrized code SYNOW to model the spectrum. We constructed a bolometric light curve and compared it with explosion models. In addition, we conducted a deep search for the host galaxy with the 10 m GTC telescope. Results. The very early light curves show a dip in the g- and r-bands and a possible initial cooling phase in the u-band before rising to maximum light. The bolometric light curve shows a precursor plateau with a duration of 6-10 days in the rest-frame. A lower limit of M u <- 21.5 can be placed on the absolute peak luminosity of the SN, while the rise time is constrained to be at least 29 days. During our observations, the emitting sphere doubled its radius to ∼2 × 10 15 cm, while the temperature remained hot at ∼15 000 K. As for other similar SNe, the spectrum is best modeled with elements including O II and Mg II, while we tentatively suggest that Fe III might be present. The host galaxy is detected in gri with 25.74 ± 0.19, 24.43 ± 0.06, and 24.14 ± 0.12, respectively. It is a faint dwarf galaxy with M g = -16.9. Conclusions. We suggest that the precursor plateau might be related to a recombination wave in a circumstellar medium (CSM) and discuss whether this is a common property of all similar explosions. The subsequent rise can be equally well described by input from a magnetar or by ejecta-CSM interaction, but the models are not well constrained owing to the lack of post-maximum observations, and CSM interaction has difficulties accounting for the precursor plateau self-consistently. Radioactive decay is less likely to be the mechanism that powers the luminosity. The host is a moderately young and star-forming, but not a starburst, galaxy.

Original languageEnglish
Article numberA129
JournalAstronomy and Astrophysics
Volume541
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2012

Fingerprint

light curve
supernovae
explosions
plateaus
luminosity
explosion
galaxies
plateau
magnetars
radioactive decay
radii
starburst galaxies
ejecta
dwarf galaxies
photosphere
common property resource
optical spectrum
recombination
interactions
telescopes

Keywords

  • Stars: massive
  • Supernovae: general
  • Supernovae: individual: SN 2006oz

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science

Cite this

Leloudas, G., Chatzopoulos, E., Dilday, B., Gorosabel, J., Vinkó, J., Gallazzi, A., ... De Ugarte Postigo, A. (2012). SN 2006oz: Rise of a super-luminous supernova observed by the SDSS-II SN Survey. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 541, [A129]. https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201118498

SN 2006oz : Rise of a super-luminous supernova observed by the SDSS-II SN Survey. / Leloudas, G.; Chatzopoulos, E.; Dilday, B.; Gorosabel, J.; Vinkó, J.; Gallazzi, A.; Wheeler, J. C.; Bassett, B.; Fischer, J. A.; Frieman, J. A.; Fynbo, J. P U; Goobar, A.; Jelínek, M.; Malesani, D.; Nichol, R. C.; Nordin, J.; Östman, L.; Sako, M.; Schneider, D. P.; Smith, M.; Sollerman, J.; Stritzinger, M. D.; Thöne, C. C.; De Ugarte Postigo, A.

In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, Vol. 541, A129, 2012.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Leloudas, G, Chatzopoulos, E, Dilday, B, Gorosabel, J, Vinkó, J, Gallazzi, A, Wheeler, JC, Bassett, B, Fischer, JA, Frieman, JA, Fynbo, JPU, Goobar, A, Jelínek, M, Malesani, D, Nichol, RC, Nordin, J, Östman, L, Sako, M, Schneider, DP, Smith, M, Sollerman, J, Stritzinger, MD, Thöne, CC & De Ugarte Postigo, A 2012, 'SN 2006oz: Rise of a super-luminous supernova observed by the SDSS-II SN Survey', Astronomy and Astrophysics, vol. 541, A129. https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201118498
Leloudas, G. ; Chatzopoulos, E. ; Dilday, B. ; Gorosabel, J. ; Vinkó, J. ; Gallazzi, A. ; Wheeler, J. C. ; Bassett, B. ; Fischer, J. A. ; Frieman, J. A. ; Fynbo, J. P U ; Goobar, A. ; Jelínek, M. ; Malesani, D. ; Nichol, R. C. ; Nordin, J. ; Östman, L. ; Sako, M. ; Schneider, D. P. ; Smith, M. ; Sollerman, J. ; Stritzinger, M. D. ; Thöne, C. C. ; De Ugarte Postigo, A. / SN 2006oz : Rise of a super-luminous supernova observed by the SDSS-II SN Survey. In: Astronomy and Astrophysics. 2012 ; Vol. 541.
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abstract = "Context. A new class of super-luminous transients has recently been identified. These objects reach absolute luminosities of M u <-21, lack hydrogen in their spectra, and are exclusively discovered by non-targeted surveys because they are associated with very faint galaxies. Aims. We aim to contribute to a better understanding of these objects by studying SN 2006oz, a newly-recognized member of this class. Methods. We present multi-color light curves of SN 2006oz from the SDSS-II SN Survey that cover its rise time, as well as an optical spectrum that shows that the explosion occurred at z ∼ 0.376. We fitted black-body functions to estimate the temperature and radius evolution of the photosphere and used the parametrized code SYNOW to model the spectrum. We constructed a bolometric light curve and compared it with explosion models. In addition, we conducted a deep search for the host galaxy with the 10 m GTC telescope. Results. The very early light curves show a dip in the g- and r-bands and a possible initial cooling phase in the u-band before rising to maximum light. The bolometric light curve shows a precursor plateau with a duration of 6-10 days in the rest-frame. A lower limit of M u <- 21.5 can be placed on the absolute peak luminosity of the SN, while the rise time is constrained to be at least 29 days. During our observations, the emitting sphere doubled its radius to ∼2 × 10 15 cm, while the temperature remained hot at ∼15 000 K. As for other similar SNe, the spectrum is best modeled with elements including O II and Mg II, while we tentatively suggest that Fe III might be present. The host galaxy is detected in gri with 25.74 ± 0.19, 24.43 ± 0.06, and 24.14 ± 0.12, respectively. It is a faint dwarf galaxy with M g = -16.9. Conclusions. We suggest that the precursor plateau might be related to a recombination wave in a circumstellar medium (CSM) and discuss whether this is a common property of all similar explosions. The subsequent rise can be equally well described by input from a magnetar or by ejecta-CSM interaction, but the models are not well constrained owing to the lack of post-maximum observations, and CSM interaction has difficulties accounting for the precursor plateau self-consistently. Radioactive decay is less likely to be the mechanism that powers the luminosity. The host is a moderately young and star-forming, but not a starburst, galaxy.",
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author = "G. Leloudas and E. Chatzopoulos and B. Dilday and J. Gorosabel and J. Vink{\'o} and A. Gallazzi and Wheeler, {J. C.} and B. Bassett and Fischer, {J. A.} and Frieman, {J. A.} and Fynbo, {J. P U} and A. Goobar and M. Jel{\'i}nek and D. Malesani and Nichol, {R. C.} and J. Nordin and L. {\"O}stman and M. Sako and Schneider, {D. P.} and M. Smith and J. Sollerman and Stritzinger, {M. D.} and Th{\"o}ne, {C. C.} and {De Ugarte Postigo}, A.",
year = "2012",
doi = "10.1051/0004-6361/201118498",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - SN 2006oz

T2 - Rise of a super-luminous supernova observed by the SDSS-II SN Survey

AU - Leloudas, G.

AU - Chatzopoulos, E.

AU - Dilday, B.

AU - Gorosabel, J.

AU - Vinkó, J.

AU - Gallazzi, A.

AU - Wheeler, J. C.

AU - Bassett, B.

AU - Fischer, J. A.

AU - Frieman, J. A.

AU - Fynbo, J. P U

AU - Goobar, A.

AU - Jelínek, M.

AU - Malesani, D.

AU - Nichol, R. C.

AU - Nordin, J.

AU - Östman, L.

AU - Sako, M.

AU - Schneider, D. P.

AU - Smith, M.

AU - Sollerman, J.

AU - Stritzinger, M. D.

AU - Thöne, C. C.

AU - De Ugarte Postigo, A.

PY - 2012

Y1 - 2012

N2 - Context. A new class of super-luminous transients has recently been identified. These objects reach absolute luminosities of M u <-21, lack hydrogen in their spectra, and are exclusively discovered by non-targeted surveys because they are associated with very faint galaxies. Aims. We aim to contribute to a better understanding of these objects by studying SN 2006oz, a newly-recognized member of this class. Methods. We present multi-color light curves of SN 2006oz from the SDSS-II SN Survey that cover its rise time, as well as an optical spectrum that shows that the explosion occurred at z ∼ 0.376. We fitted black-body functions to estimate the temperature and radius evolution of the photosphere and used the parametrized code SYNOW to model the spectrum. We constructed a bolometric light curve and compared it with explosion models. In addition, we conducted a deep search for the host galaxy with the 10 m GTC telescope. Results. The very early light curves show a dip in the g- and r-bands and a possible initial cooling phase in the u-band before rising to maximum light. The bolometric light curve shows a precursor plateau with a duration of 6-10 days in the rest-frame. A lower limit of M u <- 21.5 can be placed on the absolute peak luminosity of the SN, while the rise time is constrained to be at least 29 days. During our observations, the emitting sphere doubled its radius to ∼2 × 10 15 cm, while the temperature remained hot at ∼15 000 K. As for other similar SNe, the spectrum is best modeled with elements including O II and Mg II, while we tentatively suggest that Fe III might be present. The host galaxy is detected in gri with 25.74 ± 0.19, 24.43 ± 0.06, and 24.14 ± 0.12, respectively. It is a faint dwarf galaxy with M g = -16.9. Conclusions. We suggest that the precursor plateau might be related to a recombination wave in a circumstellar medium (CSM) and discuss whether this is a common property of all similar explosions. The subsequent rise can be equally well described by input from a magnetar or by ejecta-CSM interaction, but the models are not well constrained owing to the lack of post-maximum observations, and CSM interaction has difficulties accounting for the precursor plateau self-consistently. Radioactive decay is less likely to be the mechanism that powers the luminosity. The host is a moderately young and star-forming, but not a starburst, galaxy.

AB - Context. A new class of super-luminous transients has recently been identified. These objects reach absolute luminosities of M u <-21, lack hydrogen in their spectra, and are exclusively discovered by non-targeted surveys because they are associated with very faint galaxies. Aims. We aim to contribute to a better understanding of these objects by studying SN 2006oz, a newly-recognized member of this class. Methods. We present multi-color light curves of SN 2006oz from the SDSS-II SN Survey that cover its rise time, as well as an optical spectrum that shows that the explosion occurred at z ∼ 0.376. We fitted black-body functions to estimate the temperature and radius evolution of the photosphere and used the parametrized code SYNOW to model the spectrum. We constructed a bolometric light curve and compared it with explosion models. In addition, we conducted a deep search for the host galaxy with the 10 m GTC telescope. Results. The very early light curves show a dip in the g- and r-bands and a possible initial cooling phase in the u-band before rising to maximum light. The bolometric light curve shows a precursor plateau with a duration of 6-10 days in the rest-frame. A lower limit of M u <- 21.5 can be placed on the absolute peak luminosity of the SN, while the rise time is constrained to be at least 29 days. During our observations, the emitting sphere doubled its radius to ∼2 × 10 15 cm, while the temperature remained hot at ∼15 000 K. As for other similar SNe, the spectrum is best modeled with elements including O II and Mg II, while we tentatively suggest that Fe III might be present. The host galaxy is detected in gri with 25.74 ± 0.19, 24.43 ± 0.06, and 24.14 ± 0.12, respectively. It is a faint dwarf galaxy with M g = -16.9. Conclusions. We suggest that the precursor plateau might be related to a recombination wave in a circumstellar medium (CSM) and discuss whether this is a common property of all similar explosions. The subsequent rise can be equally well described by input from a magnetar or by ejecta-CSM interaction, but the models are not well constrained owing to the lack of post-maximum observations, and CSM interaction has difficulties accounting for the precursor plateau self-consistently. Radioactive decay is less likely to be the mechanism that powers the luminosity. The host is a moderately young and star-forming, but not a starburst, galaxy.

KW - Stars: massive

KW - Supernovae: general

KW - Supernovae: individual: SN 2006oz

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