Myxozoans are common parasites of fish kidneys, with most having specific sites of development. Five specific sites of development include (1) the lumen of renal tubules, (2) the renal corpuscles followed by location in renal tubules, (3) intracellular location within the tubular epithelium followed by a stage in the lumen of the ducts, (4) haematopoietic tissue with dispersed trophozoites, and (5) haematopoietic tissue with large, localized plasmodia. A coelozoic development preceded by presporogonic multiplication characterises most Sphaerospora spp. Early plasmodial stages of Myxidium and Chloromyxum spp. are freguently found in the renal glomerules, while spores develop in the urinary channels in plasmodia released from the renal corpuscles. In Hoferellus and Myxobilatus spp., spores are formed in small plasmodia inside the lumen of the urinary ducts after several internal cleavages in the epithelium of renal tubules. The presence of dispersed trophozoites among haematopoietic tissue cells of the renal interstitium characterises the development of Sphaerospora tincae and Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae, the causative agent of proliferative kidney disease (PKD). Spores of S. tincae are formed at the place of plasmodial development, while spore formation of PKD is in the renal tubules. A large mass of spores, often surrounded by a connective tissue capsule, can appear in the renal interstitium during infections by several Myxobolus spp.; furthermore, a large number of these spores formed in plasmodia in distant tissues can also accumulate in melano-macrophage centres.
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ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
- Aquatic Science