Sinking properties of some phytoplankton shapes and the relation of form resistance to morphological diversity of plankton - An experimental study

J. Padisák, Éva Soróczki-Pintér, Zsuzsanna Rezner

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

131 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Form resistance (Φ) is a dimensionless number expressing how much slower or faster a particle of any form sinks in a fluid medium than the sphere of equivalent volume. Form resistance factors of PVC models of phytoplankton sinking in glycerin were measured in a large aquarium (0.6 x 0.6 x 0.95 m). For cylindrical forms, a positive relationship was found between Φ and length/width ratio. Coiling decreased Φ in filamentous forms. Form resistance of Asterionella colonies increased from single cells up to 6-celled colonies than remained nearly constant. For Fragilaria crotonensis chains, no such upper limit to Φ was observed in chains of up to 20 cells (longer ones were not measured). The effect of symmetry on Φ was tested in 1-6-celled Asterionella colonies, having variable angles between the cells, and in Tetrastrum staurogeniaeforme coenobia, having different spine arrangements. In all cases, symmetric forms had considerably higher form resistance than asymmetric ones. However, for Pediastrum coenobia with symmetric/asymmetric fenestration, no difference was observed with respect to symmetry. Increasing number and length of spines on Tetrastrum coenobia substantially increased Φ. For a series of Staurastrum forms, a significant positive correlation was found between arm-length/cell-width ratio and Φ protuberances increased form resistance. Flagellates (Rhodomonas, Gymnodinium) had a Φ <1: they sank faster than the spheres of equivalent volume. Ceratium (Φ = 1.61) proved an exception among flagellates: in most forms tested in this study (ellipsoid flagellates, Staurastrum forms with no or very short protuberances, and Cosmarium forms), Φ > 1. The highest value (Φ = 8.1) was established for a 20-celled Fragilaria crotonensis chain. Possible origin of the so-called 'vital component' (a factor that shows how much slower viable populations sink than morphologically similar senescent or dead ones) is discussed, as is the role of form resistance in evolution of high diversity of plankton morphologies.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)243-257
Number of pages15
JournalHydrobiologia
Volume500
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jun 15 2003

Fingerprint

Tetrastrum
plankton
experimental study
Asterionella
phytoplankton
Fragilaria
symmetry
dimensionless number
Staurastrum
Pediastrum
flagellate
cells
aquarium
Rhodomonas
Gymnodinium
aquariums
glycerol
fluid
effect
particle

Keywords

  • Form resistance
  • Phytoplankton
  • Shape
  • Sinking properties
  • Spines
  • Symmetry
  • Vital factor

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Aquatic Science

Cite this

Sinking properties of some phytoplankton shapes and the relation of form resistance to morphological diversity of plankton - An experimental study. / Padisák, J.; Soróczki-Pintér, Éva; Rezner, Zsuzsanna.

In: Hydrobiologia, Vol. 500, 15.06.2003, p. 243-257.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{85c1e24df5634d81917b7c3fe1a659d6,
title = "Sinking properties of some phytoplankton shapes and the relation of form resistance to morphological diversity of plankton - An experimental study",
abstract = "Form resistance (Φ) is a dimensionless number expressing how much slower or faster a particle of any form sinks in a fluid medium than the sphere of equivalent volume. Form resistance factors of PVC models of phytoplankton sinking in glycerin were measured in a large aquarium (0.6 x 0.6 x 0.95 m). For cylindrical forms, a positive relationship was found between Φ and length/width ratio. Coiling decreased Φ in filamentous forms. Form resistance of Asterionella colonies increased from single cells up to 6-celled colonies than remained nearly constant. For Fragilaria crotonensis chains, no such upper limit to Φ was observed in chains of up to 20 cells (longer ones were not measured). The effect of symmetry on Φ was tested in 1-6-celled Asterionella colonies, having variable angles between the cells, and in Tetrastrum staurogeniaeforme coenobia, having different spine arrangements. In all cases, symmetric forms had considerably higher form resistance than asymmetric ones. However, for Pediastrum coenobia with symmetric/asymmetric fenestration, no difference was observed with respect to symmetry. Increasing number and length of spines on Tetrastrum coenobia substantially increased Φ. For a series of Staurastrum forms, a significant positive correlation was found between arm-length/cell-width ratio and Φ protuberances increased form resistance. Flagellates (Rhodomonas, Gymnodinium) had a Φ <1: they sank faster than the spheres of equivalent volume. Ceratium (Φ = 1.61) proved an exception among flagellates: in most forms tested in this study (ellipsoid flagellates, Staurastrum forms with no or very short protuberances, and Cosmarium forms), Φ > 1. The highest value (Φ = 8.1) was established for a 20-celled Fragilaria crotonensis chain. Possible origin of the so-called 'vital component' (a factor that shows how much slower viable populations sink than morphologically similar senescent or dead ones) is discussed, as is the role of form resistance in evolution of high diversity of plankton morphologies.",
keywords = "Form resistance, Phytoplankton, Shape, Sinking properties, Spines, Symmetry, Vital factor",
author = "J. Padis{\'a}k and {\'E}va Sor{\'o}czki-Pint{\'e}r and Zsuzsanna Rezner",
year = "2003",
month = "6",
day = "15",
doi = "10.1023/A:1024613001147",
language = "English",
volume = "500",
pages = "243--257",
journal = "Hydrobiologia",
issn = "0018-8158",
publisher = "Springer Netherlands",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Sinking properties of some phytoplankton shapes and the relation of form resistance to morphological diversity of plankton - An experimental study

AU - Padisák, J.

AU - Soróczki-Pintér, Éva

AU - Rezner, Zsuzsanna

PY - 2003/6/15

Y1 - 2003/6/15

N2 - Form resistance (Φ) is a dimensionless number expressing how much slower or faster a particle of any form sinks in a fluid medium than the sphere of equivalent volume. Form resistance factors of PVC models of phytoplankton sinking in glycerin were measured in a large aquarium (0.6 x 0.6 x 0.95 m). For cylindrical forms, a positive relationship was found between Φ and length/width ratio. Coiling decreased Φ in filamentous forms. Form resistance of Asterionella colonies increased from single cells up to 6-celled colonies than remained nearly constant. For Fragilaria crotonensis chains, no such upper limit to Φ was observed in chains of up to 20 cells (longer ones were not measured). The effect of symmetry on Φ was tested in 1-6-celled Asterionella colonies, having variable angles between the cells, and in Tetrastrum staurogeniaeforme coenobia, having different spine arrangements. In all cases, symmetric forms had considerably higher form resistance than asymmetric ones. However, for Pediastrum coenobia with symmetric/asymmetric fenestration, no difference was observed with respect to symmetry. Increasing number and length of spines on Tetrastrum coenobia substantially increased Φ. For a series of Staurastrum forms, a significant positive correlation was found between arm-length/cell-width ratio and Φ protuberances increased form resistance. Flagellates (Rhodomonas, Gymnodinium) had a Φ <1: they sank faster than the spheres of equivalent volume. Ceratium (Φ = 1.61) proved an exception among flagellates: in most forms tested in this study (ellipsoid flagellates, Staurastrum forms with no or very short protuberances, and Cosmarium forms), Φ > 1. The highest value (Φ = 8.1) was established for a 20-celled Fragilaria crotonensis chain. Possible origin of the so-called 'vital component' (a factor that shows how much slower viable populations sink than morphologically similar senescent or dead ones) is discussed, as is the role of form resistance in evolution of high diversity of plankton morphologies.

AB - Form resistance (Φ) is a dimensionless number expressing how much slower or faster a particle of any form sinks in a fluid medium than the sphere of equivalent volume. Form resistance factors of PVC models of phytoplankton sinking in glycerin were measured in a large aquarium (0.6 x 0.6 x 0.95 m). For cylindrical forms, a positive relationship was found between Φ and length/width ratio. Coiling decreased Φ in filamentous forms. Form resistance of Asterionella colonies increased from single cells up to 6-celled colonies than remained nearly constant. For Fragilaria crotonensis chains, no such upper limit to Φ was observed in chains of up to 20 cells (longer ones were not measured). The effect of symmetry on Φ was tested in 1-6-celled Asterionella colonies, having variable angles between the cells, and in Tetrastrum staurogeniaeforme coenobia, having different spine arrangements. In all cases, symmetric forms had considerably higher form resistance than asymmetric ones. However, for Pediastrum coenobia with symmetric/asymmetric fenestration, no difference was observed with respect to symmetry. Increasing number and length of spines on Tetrastrum coenobia substantially increased Φ. For a series of Staurastrum forms, a significant positive correlation was found between arm-length/cell-width ratio and Φ protuberances increased form resistance. Flagellates (Rhodomonas, Gymnodinium) had a Φ <1: they sank faster than the spheres of equivalent volume. Ceratium (Φ = 1.61) proved an exception among flagellates: in most forms tested in this study (ellipsoid flagellates, Staurastrum forms with no or very short protuberances, and Cosmarium forms), Φ > 1. The highest value (Φ = 8.1) was established for a 20-celled Fragilaria crotonensis chain. Possible origin of the so-called 'vital component' (a factor that shows how much slower viable populations sink than morphologically similar senescent or dead ones) is discussed, as is the role of form resistance in evolution of high diversity of plankton morphologies.

KW - Form resistance

KW - Phytoplankton

KW - Shape

KW - Sinking properties

KW - Spines

KW - Symmetry

KW - Vital factor

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0345495687&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0345495687&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1023/A:1024613001147

DO - 10.1023/A:1024613001147

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:0345495687

VL - 500

SP - 243

EP - 257

JO - Hydrobiologia

JF - Hydrobiologia

SN - 0018-8158

ER -