OBJECTIVE - To compare the clinical parameters, C-peptide levels, pattern of islet cell-specific autoantibodies, and prevalence of predisposing genotypes in subjects with latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) and those with adult-onset type 1 diabetes with rapid progression. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - We evaluated the clinical parameters, C-peptide levels, and islet cell-specific autoantibodies in 54 LADA, 57 adult-onset type 1 diabetic, and 190 type 2 diabetic patients. Islet cell autoantibodies were also compared between subgroups of newly diagnosed patients with LADA and those with newly diagnosed adult-onset and childhood-onset type 1 diabetes. The genetic study was performed in subjects with LADA and those with adult-onset type 1 diabetes in comparison with a control population. RESULTS - There were no differences in the clinical parameters between LADA and adult-onset type 1 diabetes. Patients with LADA had lower BMI (P < 0.0001), waist-to-hip ratio (0.0029), total cholesterol (P = 0.001), and triglycerides (P = 0.001); higher HDL cholesterol levels (P < 0.0001); and lower prevalence of hypertension (P = 0.0028) compared with patients with type 2 diabetes. C-peptide levels were similar at onset (P = 0.403) but decreased less rapidly in LADA than in adult-onset type 1 diabetes (P = 0.0253). Single-autoantibody positivity was more often seen in LADA than in type 1 diabetes (P = 0.0001). The prevalence of predisposing HLA-DQB1*0302, -DR4, -DR3, and -DR3/DR4 genotypes and the DR4-DQB1*0302 haplotype were increased in both LADA and adult-onset type 1 diabetic subjects compared with the control population. There were no differences in the frequencies of these risk alleles and haplotypes between the two patient groups. CONCLUSIONS - Subjects with LADA had clinical characteristics similar to those with adult-onset type 1 diabetes with rapid progression. C-peptide levels did not differ at onset but decreased less rapidly in LADA. Patients with LADA rather had single islet cell-specific autoantibody positivity. The prevalence of HLA-DQB1*0302, -DR4, -DR3, and -DR3/DR4 risk alleles and the DR4-DQB1*0302 high-risk haplotype did not differ in the two forms of autoimmune diabetes.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Internal Medicine
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Advanced and Specialised Nursing