Within the frame of the program "Scientific support for agricultural production" of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, a study was made to survey the international and the Hungarian situation related to salmonellosis. Based on the last years' data it can be repeatedly stated that in Hungary - just like in many other European countries - salmonellosis continues to have a prime significance. According to the Hungarian enteric surveillance data, the human salmonellosis is mostly due to S.enteritidis infection. Between 1992-1996 it was responsible for 69-88% of the total human Salmonella infestions investigated, followed by S.typhimurium (3-5%) and S.hadar (1-2%). The overwhelming majority (76-99%) of these infections was related to food, in which the food of poultry origin has strongly dominated (66-96%). Besides, data from the Salmonella serotyping of poultry isolates indicated that this serovar was dominant (62% of meat isolates and 74% of those from egg products), in contrast to years 1990-1992 when S.hadar was the dominant (30-48%) serovar from poultry carcasses. In frame of this study data were collected about the number and size distribution of poultry breeding and production units. The number of breeding units were: 22 of egg type breeders and 28 of meat type breeders (ranging in size 5000 to > 100 000). The number of production units were: 41 of table egg producers and 324 of broiler producers, ranging in the same size as above. The number of hatcheries - based on a 1994 study - can be estimated to be above 300 (3/4 of them with size 10 000-100 000). This size distribution of poultry units has been judged - with respect to potential Salmonella eradication programs - as favourable regarding breeder flocks but very unfavourable regarding the relative large number of small and medium size hatcheries. Regarding Salmonella infection rate or prevailing Salmonella serovar of live domestic poultry, turkey, waterfowl and pigs or cattle, there were very few (much less than expected) data available. The study reviewes the most important elements of fight against salmonellosis. It deals with improved hygiene in the slaughtering process (live bird care, microbiological control, avoiding cross contamination, special attention to and application of HACCP rules, new techniques of scalding, evisceration, chilling and drying, to continuous monitoring and cleaning systems). It also discusses new opportunities of chemical and physical decontamination. Further attention is given to activities and techniques aiming to protect live animals from Salmonella. Data from the international literature and from Hungary are listed and analysed on cleaning, disinfection and rodent control (biosecurity), on use of probiotics, CE floras, live oral and killed parenteral Salmonella vaccines, as well as on the controversial issue of using antibiotics. The appropriate and many times simultaneous use of these techniques can essentially help reducing the Salmonella contamination of flocks but can not completely eliminate infection. The most essential area of protection being biosecurity. Based on this study it has been concluded that Hungarian data on Salmonella isolations from live animals and of food of animal origin, are only partially in harmony with data from human epidemics. It is emphasized that more reliable data and more complete epidemiologic tracing are needed in order to obtain a more exact epidemiologic picture and in order to be able to make decisions for a Salmonella reduction plan. Such reliable data are also essential for the professionally sound partnership with public health authorities. It is suggeted that there is an immediate need - for establishment of a Salmonella monitoring program, and - for elaboration of a Salmonella reduction plan in Hungary. The knowledge and theoretical basis for such programs has been described in the "Integrated Quality System for Salmonella Control" that has been worked out within the PHARE (HU-9304-05-02) project, for the Hungarian poultry sector in 1995.
|Translated title of the contribution||Significance of salmonellosis in food safety and opportunities to reduce losses in Hungary|
|Number of pages||14|
|Journal||Magyar Allatorvosok Lapja|
|Publication status||Published - Dec 1 1997|
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