Shoulder muscle activity during pushing, pulling, elevation and overhead throw

Árpád Illyés, Rita M. Kiss

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

36 Citations (Scopus)


Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the muscle activity of recreational athletes and professional javelin throwers during pull, push, and elevation of upper extremities and during overhead throw. Scope: Nine professional javelin throwers and 16 recreational athletes without shoulder problems were studied. Signals were recorded by surface EMG from eight different muscles. The results obtained from the muscles of upper extremities of throwers were compared with those of recreational athletes. Conclusion: The different neuromuscular contol of professional throwers caused a more profitable muscle activity. Differences during the overhead throw were more significant. The deltoid muscle and rotator cuff of recreational athletes showed stronger activity than those of throwers during pull, push and elevation. The deltoid muscle and the rotator cuff of professional throwers showed stronger activity during overhead throw. Studying the detailed characteristics of muscle activity pattern (differences in length of activity periods, MVC% of muscles and time broadness among peak muscle activities in percent of total time of a movement cycle) may provide a basis for better understanding improved performance and help in planning proper rehabilitation protocol.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)282-289
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Electromyography and Kinesiology
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2005


  • Biomechanics
  • Electromyography
  • Overhead throw
  • Shoulder

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuroscience (miscellaneous)
  • Biophysics
  • Clinical Neurology

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