Objective To investigate sevoflurane's potential to alleviate the detrimental pulmonary changes after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Design Prospective, randomized clinical investigation. Setting University hospital. Participants One hundred ninety patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery. Interventions Ninety-nine patients under intravenous anesthesia were administered 1 minimal alveolar concentration of sevoflurane for 5 minutes after being weaned from CPB (group SEV); intravenous anesthesia was maintained in the other 91 patients (group CTRL). Measurements and Main Results Measurements were performed with open chest: before CPB, after CPB, and after intervention. The lungs’ mechanical impedance and capnogram traces were recorded, arterial and central venous blood samples were analyzed, and lung compliance was documented. Airway resistance, tissue damping, and elastance were obtained from the impedance spectra. The capnogram phase III slope was determined using linear regression. The partial pressure of oxygen in the arterial blood/fraction of inspired oxygen ratio and shunt fraction were calculated from blood gas parameters. After CPB, sevoflurane induced bronchodilation, reflected in marked drops in airway resistance and smaller improvements in lung tissue viscoelasticity indicated by decreases in tissue damping and elastance. These changes were reflected in a decreased capnogram phase III slope and shunt fraction and increased partial pressure of oxygen in the arterial blood/fraction of inspired oxygen ratio and lung compliance. The more severe deteriorations that occurred after CPB, the greater improvements by sevoflurane were observed. Conclusions Sevoflurane can alleviate CPB-induced bronchoconstriction, compromised lung tissue mechanics, and enhanced intrapulmonary shunt. This benefit has particular importance in patients with severe CPB-induced lung function deterioration.
- extracorporeal circulation
- inhalation anesthesia
- respiratory mechanics
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
- Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine