Seasonal dynamics of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium contents of leaf and soil in environmental friendly apple orchards

I. J. Holb, I. Gonda, I. Vágó, P. T. Nagy

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7 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Nowadays, there is increasing interest in environmentally friendly growing systems, and attention has also been paid to the environmental impacts of natural and artificial fertilizations. However, seasonal dynamics of macronutrient status needs further investigations in environmentally friendly apple orchards. Therefore, this study was aimed to determine nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium contents of leaves in every month during the season and of soil in April and October at Debrecen-Pallag, Hungary, from 2002 to 2004. The study was performed in integrated and organic apple orchards on three apple cultivars (Mutsu, Elstar, and Reka). All easily soluble (0.01 M CaCl2) and plant-available nitrogen fractions (nitrate nitrogen, ammonium nitrogen, and total soluble nitrogen) in the soil were significantly higher (P = 0.05) in the integrated apple orchard compared to the organic one. The 0.01 M calcium chloride (CaCl2) soluble ortho-phosphate and total phosphate fractions of the soil were significantly higher (P = 0.05), whereas organic phosphate and soil pH showed no significant difference in the integrated apple orchard compared to the organic one. Potassium contents of the integrated soils were significantly higher (P = 0.05) compared to those of the organic one. Nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium contents of leaves were higher in the integrated orchard compared to the organic one. The dynamics of P uptake corresponded to the phenological phases of apple. Potassium content of apple leaves decreased continuously until July, after that it slightly increased, and then it decreased again. In conclusion, results suggest that better mobility of artificial fertilizers in integrated orchards provided higher macronutrient uptake than in organic orchards, where only natural nutrient sources are allowed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)694-705
Number of pages12
JournalCommunications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis
Volume40
Issue number1-6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1 2009

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Keywords

  • Apple
  • Integrated
  • Leaf
  • Macronutrient
  • Nitrogen
  • Organic
  • Phosphorus
  • Potassium
  • Soil

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Agronomy and Crop Science
  • Soil Science

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