Screening the toxic potential of Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii strains isolated from Lake Balaton, Hungary

Otilia Antal, Mariann Karisztl-Gácsi, A. Farkas, Attila Kovács, András Ács, Norbert Töro, G. Kiss, Martin L. Saker, János Gyori, G. Bánfalvi, A. Vehovszky

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

16 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii is becoming a major concern among cyanobacteria, due to its potential ability to produce toxic metabolites. We assessed the cytotoxic potential of four C. raciborskii strains (ACT 9502, ACT 9503, ACT 9504 and ACT 9505) isolated from Lake Balaton (Hungary), by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage measurements and by detecting morphological alterations in CHO-K1 (Chinese Hamster Ovary) cells. The Australian AQS (cylindrospermopsin producer) strain of C. raciborskii and purified cylindrospermopsin (CYN) were used as positive references in both the biochemical and morphological studies. Chemical analysis for known cyanotoxins was performed on aqueous extracts of ACT and AQS strains by the HPLC-MS technique. Comparing threshold values of LDH leakage data, different toxic potentials of cyanobacterial extracts are suggested in short term (3 h) and long (24 h) exposure regimes. In the acute (3 h) experiments the aqueous extract of the ACT 9505 strain proved to be most toxic (EC50 = 7.4 mg mL-1), while after 24 h the ACT 9504 extract was the most effective (EC50 = 0.65 mg mL-1). The extract of the AQS strain and the purified CYN exerted most of their toxic effects after 3 h exposure (EC50 = 0.74 mg mL-1, and 0.9 μg mL-1 respectively).The morphological changes of CHO-K1 cells induced by the crude extracts of the ACT strains included fragmentation of the actin filaments then relocation of the depolymerized actin to the perinuclear region, resulting cell rounding and loss of adhesion. Exposure of CHO-K1 cells to the crude extract of the AQS strain, moreover, resulted cell shrinking and formation of filopodia, i.e. distinctly different cytological alterations from that induced by the ACT extracts and the purified CYN. Chemical analysis of the cyanobacterial crude extracts confirmed the presence of cylindrospermopsin in the extract of the AQS strain (8.5 mg CYN g-1 dry weight), and none of the presently known cyanotoxins have been analytically confirmed in the extracts of the ACT strains isolated from the Lake Balaton. Although a significant toxicity of all four ACT C. raciborskii strains is confirmed by both biochemical and morphological studies, our results also pointed out the necessity of further studies to identify the toxic, but still unknown metabolic components produced by these cyanobacterial members of the phytoplankton communities.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)831-840
Number of pages10
JournalToxicon
Volume57
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - May 2011

Fingerprint

Cylindrospermopsis
Hungary
Poisons
Lakes
Screening
Complex Mixtures
CHO Cells
L-Lactate Dehydrogenase
Actins
Phytoplankton
Pseudopodia
Cyanobacteria
Cricetulus
Relocation
Actin Cytoskeleton
Metabolites
cylindrospermopsin
Chemical analysis
Ovary
Toxicity

Keywords

  • CHO-K1 cells
  • Cylindrospermopsin
  • Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii
  • Cytoskeletal alterations
  • Cytotoxicity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Toxicology

Cite this

Screening the toxic potential of Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii strains isolated from Lake Balaton, Hungary. / Antal, Otilia; Karisztl-Gácsi, Mariann; Farkas, A.; Kovács, Attila; Ács, András; Töro, Norbert; Kiss, G.; Saker, Martin L.; Gyori, János; Bánfalvi, G.; Vehovszky, A.

In: Toxicon, Vol. 57, No. 6, 05.2011, p. 831-840.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Antal, Otilia ; Karisztl-Gácsi, Mariann ; Farkas, A. ; Kovács, Attila ; Ács, András ; Töro, Norbert ; Kiss, G. ; Saker, Martin L. ; Gyori, János ; Bánfalvi, G. ; Vehovszky, A. / Screening the toxic potential of Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii strains isolated from Lake Balaton, Hungary. In: Toxicon. 2011 ; Vol. 57, No. 6. pp. 831-840.
@article{c856e83b269f4602a8ae21b0687fa313,
title = "Screening the toxic potential of Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii strains isolated from Lake Balaton, Hungary",
abstract = "Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii is becoming a major concern among cyanobacteria, due to its potential ability to produce toxic metabolites. We assessed the cytotoxic potential of four C. raciborskii strains (ACT 9502, ACT 9503, ACT 9504 and ACT 9505) isolated from Lake Balaton (Hungary), by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage measurements and by detecting morphological alterations in CHO-K1 (Chinese Hamster Ovary) cells. The Australian AQS (cylindrospermopsin producer) strain of C. raciborskii and purified cylindrospermopsin (CYN) were used as positive references in both the biochemical and morphological studies. Chemical analysis for known cyanotoxins was performed on aqueous extracts of ACT and AQS strains by the HPLC-MS technique. Comparing threshold values of LDH leakage data, different toxic potentials of cyanobacterial extracts are suggested in short term (3 h) and long (24 h) exposure regimes. In the acute (3 h) experiments the aqueous extract of the ACT 9505 strain proved to be most toxic (EC50 = 7.4 mg mL-1), while after 24 h the ACT 9504 extract was the most effective (EC50 = 0.65 mg mL-1). The extract of the AQS strain and the purified CYN exerted most of their toxic effects after 3 h exposure (EC50 = 0.74 mg mL-1, and 0.9 μg mL-1 respectively).The morphological changes of CHO-K1 cells induced by the crude extracts of the ACT strains included fragmentation of the actin filaments then relocation of the depolymerized actin to the perinuclear region, resulting cell rounding and loss of adhesion. Exposure of CHO-K1 cells to the crude extract of the AQS strain, moreover, resulted cell shrinking and formation of filopodia, i.e. distinctly different cytological alterations from that induced by the ACT extracts and the purified CYN. Chemical analysis of the cyanobacterial crude extracts confirmed the presence of cylindrospermopsin in the extract of the AQS strain (8.5 mg CYN g-1 dry weight), and none of the presently known cyanotoxins have been analytically confirmed in the extracts of the ACT strains isolated from the Lake Balaton. Although a significant toxicity of all four ACT C. raciborskii strains is confirmed by both biochemical and morphological studies, our results also pointed out the necessity of further studies to identify the toxic, but still unknown metabolic components produced by these cyanobacterial members of the phytoplankton communities.",
keywords = "CHO-K1 cells, Cylindrospermopsin, Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii, Cytoskeletal alterations, Cytotoxicity",
author = "Otilia Antal and Mariann Karisztl-G{\'a}csi and A. Farkas and Attila Kov{\'a}cs and Andr{\'a}s {\'A}cs and Norbert T{\"o}ro and G. Kiss and Saker, {Martin L.} and J{\'a}nos Gyori and G. B{\'a}nfalvi and A. Vehovszky",
year = "2011",
month = "5",
doi = "10.1016/j.toxicon.2011.02.007",
language = "English",
volume = "57",
pages = "831--840",
journal = "Toxicon",
issn = "0041-0101",
publisher = "Elsevier Limited",
number = "6",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Screening the toxic potential of Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii strains isolated from Lake Balaton, Hungary

AU - Antal, Otilia

AU - Karisztl-Gácsi, Mariann

AU - Farkas, A.

AU - Kovács, Attila

AU - Ács, András

AU - Töro, Norbert

AU - Kiss, G.

AU - Saker, Martin L.

AU - Gyori, János

AU - Bánfalvi, G.

AU - Vehovszky, A.

PY - 2011/5

Y1 - 2011/5

N2 - Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii is becoming a major concern among cyanobacteria, due to its potential ability to produce toxic metabolites. We assessed the cytotoxic potential of four C. raciborskii strains (ACT 9502, ACT 9503, ACT 9504 and ACT 9505) isolated from Lake Balaton (Hungary), by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage measurements and by detecting morphological alterations in CHO-K1 (Chinese Hamster Ovary) cells. The Australian AQS (cylindrospermopsin producer) strain of C. raciborskii and purified cylindrospermopsin (CYN) were used as positive references in both the biochemical and morphological studies. Chemical analysis for known cyanotoxins was performed on aqueous extracts of ACT and AQS strains by the HPLC-MS technique. Comparing threshold values of LDH leakage data, different toxic potentials of cyanobacterial extracts are suggested in short term (3 h) and long (24 h) exposure regimes. In the acute (3 h) experiments the aqueous extract of the ACT 9505 strain proved to be most toxic (EC50 = 7.4 mg mL-1), while after 24 h the ACT 9504 extract was the most effective (EC50 = 0.65 mg mL-1). The extract of the AQS strain and the purified CYN exerted most of their toxic effects after 3 h exposure (EC50 = 0.74 mg mL-1, and 0.9 μg mL-1 respectively).The morphological changes of CHO-K1 cells induced by the crude extracts of the ACT strains included fragmentation of the actin filaments then relocation of the depolymerized actin to the perinuclear region, resulting cell rounding and loss of adhesion. Exposure of CHO-K1 cells to the crude extract of the AQS strain, moreover, resulted cell shrinking and formation of filopodia, i.e. distinctly different cytological alterations from that induced by the ACT extracts and the purified CYN. Chemical analysis of the cyanobacterial crude extracts confirmed the presence of cylindrospermopsin in the extract of the AQS strain (8.5 mg CYN g-1 dry weight), and none of the presently known cyanotoxins have been analytically confirmed in the extracts of the ACT strains isolated from the Lake Balaton. Although a significant toxicity of all four ACT C. raciborskii strains is confirmed by both biochemical and morphological studies, our results also pointed out the necessity of further studies to identify the toxic, but still unknown metabolic components produced by these cyanobacterial members of the phytoplankton communities.

AB - Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii is becoming a major concern among cyanobacteria, due to its potential ability to produce toxic metabolites. We assessed the cytotoxic potential of four C. raciborskii strains (ACT 9502, ACT 9503, ACT 9504 and ACT 9505) isolated from Lake Balaton (Hungary), by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage measurements and by detecting morphological alterations in CHO-K1 (Chinese Hamster Ovary) cells. The Australian AQS (cylindrospermopsin producer) strain of C. raciborskii and purified cylindrospermopsin (CYN) were used as positive references in both the biochemical and morphological studies. Chemical analysis for known cyanotoxins was performed on aqueous extracts of ACT and AQS strains by the HPLC-MS technique. Comparing threshold values of LDH leakage data, different toxic potentials of cyanobacterial extracts are suggested in short term (3 h) and long (24 h) exposure regimes. In the acute (3 h) experiments the aqueous extract of the ACT 9505 strain proved to be most toxic (EC50 = 7.4 mg mL-1), while after 24 h the ACT 9504 extract was the most effective (EC50 = 0.65 mg mL-1). The extract of the AQS strain and the purified CYN exerted most of their toxic effects after 3 h exposure (EC50 = 0.74 mg mL-1, and 0.9 μg mL-1 respectively).The morphological changes of CHO-K1 cells induced by the crude extracts of the ACT strains included fragmentation of the actin filaments then relocation of the depolymerized actin to the perinuclear region, resulting cell rounding and loss of adhesion. Exposure of CHO-K1 cells to the crude extract of the AQS strain, moreover, resulted cell shrinking and formation of filopodia, i.e. distinctly different cytological alterations from that induced by the ACT extracts and the purified CYN. Chemical analysis of the cyanobacterial crude extracts confirmed the presence of cylindrospermopsin in the extract of the AQS strain (8.5 mg CYN g-1 dry weight), and none of the presently known cyanotoxins have been analytically confirmed in the extracts of the ACT strains isolated from the Lake Balaton. Although a significant toxicity of all four ACT C. raciborskii strains is confirmed by both biochemical and morphological studies, our results also pointed out the necessity of further studies to identify the toxic, but still unknown metabolic components produced by these cyanobacterial members of the phytoplankton communities.

KW - CHO-K1 cells

KW - Cylindrospermopsin

KW - Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii

KW - Cytoskeletal alterations

KW - Cytotoxicity

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=79954989601&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=79954989601&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.toxicon.2011.02.007

DO - 10.1016/j.toxicon.2011.02.007

M3 - Article

VL - 57

SP - 831

EP - 840

JO - Toxicon

JF - Toxicon

SN - 0041-0101

IS - 6

ER -